History and Technology of Woodcarving and Furniture

Conservation and Restoration

4 ECTS; 3º Ano, 1º Semestre, 15,0 T + 30,0 PL + 2,0 OT

Lecturer
- Fernando dos Santos Antunes

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
Knowledge of techniques and technologies for artistic production of woodcarving and furniture.
Knowledge and use of raw materials, products, materials, utensils, instruments and equipment.
Practice the main production techniques, at the level of woodcarving, with the coatings with metallic sheets and polychromies, and at the level of furniture, with the decorative coatings in different woods and other diverse materials and of the finishes and polishes.
Develop manual skills, concentration and technical accuracy in execution.

Program
A. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO OF WOODCARVING AND FURNITURE TECHNOLOGY
1. Main materials and products used in artistic production of the of timber artifacts
2. Terminology used in woodworking area
3. The Wood Workshop
3.1. Main equipment, tools and instruments
3.2. Basic hygiene rules, health, safety and organization

B. WOOD STRUCTURES – ASSEMBLAGE AND JOINERY SYSTEMS
1. Art and technique of the assemblage and joinery in wood structures
1.1. Selection and preparation of wood
1.2. Measurement
1.3. Draw cutting lines
1.4. Cutting and setting
1.5. Gluing and clamping techniques

C. ORNAMENTAL AND FIGURATIVE DECORATIVE TECHNIQUES
1. Art and technique of carving or sculpting wood objects
1.1. Execution of drawing or sketch and auxiliary markings
1.2. The selection and preparation of wood
1.3. Transposition of the drawing
1.4. Cut out the contours
1.5. Wood thinning
1.6. Modelling of volumes
1.6.1. Thinning of the second plans
1.6.2. Setting of the first plans
1.6.3. Finishing and polishing

D. DECORATIVE COVERINGS IN METAL LEAFS AND POLYCHROMES
1. Art and technique of gilding and silvering
1.1. Materials and preparatory techniques of wood surface
1.1.1. Wood preparation to receive the layers
1.1.2. The preparatory or bedding layers of the metal leaf
1.1.3. Levelling and polishing the preparation layers
1.2. Materials and techniques of fine gold and silver, and imitation leaf’s coatings
1.2.1. The water or tempera mordant
1.2.2. The oil or mordant
1.3. Types of finishes of metal coverings
1.3.1. Burnished, semi-matt, matte, frosted
1.3.2. Application of protection layer
2. Art and technique of polychromes on metal coverings
2.1. Upholstery imitation painting
2.2. Sgraffito
2.3. Punctured

E. DECORATIVE TECHNICAL IN FURNITURE
1. Art and technique of wood decorating and coating
1.1. Inlays
1.2. Wood Plating, veneers and marquetry
1.3. Encrusted
2. Art and technique of wood colouring
2.1. Colouring with aqueous wood stains
2.2. Colouring with transparency – dyes
3. Art and technique of woods finishing’s
3.1. Polishing with abrasives materials, dry polishing's, or preparatory polishing's
3.2. Polishing with cedar, linseed or teak oils
3.3. Polishing with liquid Vaseline
3.4. Polishing with waxes
3.5. The English polishing, half polishing with beeswax & shellac varnish, or Portuguese polishing
3.6. The French polishing, ethyl alcohol and shellac polishing, or rag-doll polishing

Evaluation Methodology
Assessment and weighted average

Theoretical component:
-Portfolio – descriptive report (40%);

Laboratory practice component:
-Portfolio – exercises (50%);
-Assiduity, commitment and organization in the class (10%).

Additional information:
-The students are obliged to comply with all assessment items, being able to choose to be globally assessed in continuous assessment, or in final assessment;
-The students, to be admitted to the final evaluation, must have a positive evaluation of the laboratory practical component, with a minimum of 9.5 values, in continuous evaluation;
-the students will be able to submit the written works of the theoretical component in final evaluation - exam period;
-Eventual improvements will be made only to the theoretical component - written works - being considered in the final global weighting the evaluation obtained in the laboratory practical component.

Bibliography
(1991). Gilded Wood: Conservation and History. (Gilding Conservation Symposium, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania). Madison, Connecticut: Sound View Press
- BAUDRY, M. (1978). La Sculpture. Paris: Ministére de la Culture, Imprimerie National
- BROUN, J. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Wood Working Techniques. London: Quatro Publishing, Headline Book Publishing
- TRILLAT, R. e AIMPEAU, B. e TRILLAT, H. (1981). Technologie des Métiers du Bois: Menuiserie, Ebénisterie, Agencement. (Vol. 1,2,3). Paris: Dunod

Method of interaction
Continuous Assessment: The students will perform different optional exercises from the phase of design to the selection and preparation of woods, the marking and transposition of drawing/sketch, the woodworking and decoration/finish.

Software used in class
Not applicable.