History and Theory of Conservation and Restoration

Conservation and Restoration
4 ECTS; 3º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 15,0 TP + 2,0 OT

Lecturer
- Fernando Sanchez Salvador

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
Understand the evolution of conservation and restoration across history; from Viollet-le-Duc to John Ruskin in the 19th century. Modern theories from Camilo Boito, Giovannoni and Cesare Brandi. Recent contemporary authors and theoreticians. International charters for restoration and its theoretical evolution. Ethical principles and code of ethics. Be able to decide when, how and to what degree a work of art should undertake conservation/restoration.

Program
The birth of modern conscience about conservation and restoration. Its evolution across time. Integral conservation. The evolution in Portugal - the 19th century; from the Fine Arts Museum to the present day.
1. Heritage, conservation and restoration. Previous notions and concepts.
2. Heritage and Monument, from evolution across time to the concept of cultural property. The birth and development of the CR culture.
3. The first theories, its genesis and intervention criteria on cultural property.
Artwork interventions. Sculpture and painting. Treaties and theories from Ancient Times to the 19th century.
4. Architectural intervention theories. Scientific restoration and critical restoration. Approaches to the work of art. Respect from the material and immaterial point of view, original materials. The concept of compatibility, authenticity and irreversibility. Cesare Brandi and the Restoration Theory.
5. History and Theory of Restoration and Conservation in Portugal. Cultural Dimension. Examples (King D. Fernando II, Almeida Garrett, Mousinho de Albuquerque, Alexandre Herculano, Ramalho Ortigão).
6. Restoration in Portugal - 19th and 20th centuries. The extinction of religious orders and the safeguard of Portuguese heritage.
7. History of restoration in Portugal - the First Republic
8. The workshop of the Museu de Arte Antiga and the José de Figueiredo Institute. The creation of the DGEMN, its interventions, publications and dissemination.
9. Preventive conservation. The Conservator-Restorer, education, duties, functions according to law.
10. Ethical principles of the conservator-restorer, the recommendations of international institutions (ECCO). Competent international/national institutions in the field of heritage, conservation and restoration.
11. New Theories of Conservation and Restoration - Salvador Muñoz Viñas. Examples:
12. Interdisciplinarity and multidisciplinarity. Architectural archaeology.

Evaluation Methodology
Mandatory continuous assessment.(AV)
Comprehension and learning of taught subject matter, class attendance and critical skills, writing skills. Research ability and problem solving skills.
F1 - Midterm test (-50%)
F2 - Midterm test (-50%)
Continuous assessment (AV) grade is the average of F1+ F2.
Minimum pass grade (10 out of 20) in both tests exempts students from taking final exam.
The Exam covers the theoretical part.

Bibliography
- GONZALES-VARAS, I. (2005). Conservación de benes culturales-Teoria, história, principios e normas. Madrid: Ediciones Cátedra,Manuales Arte Cátedra,ISBN-13: 978-8437-617-21-3
- BRANDI, C. (2006). TEORIA DO RESTAURO. Amadora: Edições Orion-ISBN-13: 978-972-8620-08-0
- MUÑOZ VIÑAS, . (2010). TEORIA CONTEMPORÂNEA DE LA RESTAURACIÓN.. Madrid: Editorial Sintesys,ISBN: -M-37794-2010
- MARTINEZ-JUSTÍCIA, M. (2001). HISTÓRIA Y TEORIA DE LA CONSERVACIÓN E RESTAURACIÓN ARTISTICA. Madrid: Editorial Tecnos

Method of interaction
Theoretical and theoretical-practical classes, using the oral expository method and support of audiovisual equipment. Presentation of examples. Discussion of cases, articles and publications relevant to the framing in the history and theory of C&R.

Software used in class
Not applicable.