Chemistry 3

Conservation and Restoration
4.5 ECTS; 2º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 TP + 2,0 OT

Lecturer
- Manuel Alberto Nogueira Henriques Rosa

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
Be able to classify organic compounds used in conservation and restoration; relate properties and structure; evaluate risks involved with solvents and their interaction with materials; identify the properties of the different CR materials; understand the photo development and paper processes.

Program
Organic Chemistry: Saturated hydrocarbons; Alkanes; Cycloalkanes; Nomenclature of saturated hydrocarbons; Nomenclature of cycloalkanes; Functional groups; alcohols and ethers; Aldehydes and ketones; Carboxylic Polymers and macromolecules: Generalities and definitions; Factors affecting cleaning in conservation and restoration: Physical cleaning techniques; Solvent cleaning techniques; Cleaning with water; Cleaning with organic solvents.
Chemistry of the black and white photography: Development: Chemical development agents, hydroquinone and metol, development mechanism. Alkaline agents, antioxidants, anti fogging and the particular case of sodium sulfite. Stop bath. Fixation and its chemical mechanism. Fixer bath composition. Toning. Washing.
Paper chemistry: Wood Chemistry; Mechanical processes; Semi-chemical processes. Chemical processes; Acid process and delignification reaction. Alkaline or kraft process and delignification reaction. Screening scrubbing and washing the unbleached pulp. Oxygen and ozone bleaching. Formation of the paper sheet.

Evaluation Methodology
There are five evaluation moments, four in the theoretical component and one in the practical component. Each evaluation moment is valued at 4 values for a total of 20 values.
The sum of the results obtained in the five moments of evaluation is equal to the final evaluation.
All students need to be evaluated in the practical component without which they will be excluded from the exam season.

Bibliography
- Horie, C. (1987). Materials for Conservation. London: Butterworth
- Wilks, (ed), H. (1984). Adhesives and Coatings. Science for Conservation Series. Book 3. London: The Conservation Unit. Museums & Galleries Commission.
- Masschelein-Kleiner, L. (1981). Les Solvants. Bruxelles: IRPA
- Masschelein-Kleiner, L. (1995). Ancient Binding Media. Roma: ICCROM

Method of interaction
Lectures and tutorials supported by case studies.

Software used in class