Conservation and Restoration 5

Conservation and Restoration
5 ECTS; 2º Ano, 2º Semestre, 15,0 T + 60,0 PL + 3,0 OT

Lecturer
- Fernando dos Santos Antunes

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
-To know the main international and Portuguese aesthetic-artistic styles and trends of retables or altarpieces and woodcarving production.
-Identify the materials, techniques and technologies of the production of the objects.
-Understand and relate the cultural characteristics of the object: artistic and aesthetic; iconographic and iconological; functional and sociological.
-To evaluate the state of conservation of the object and to diagnose, taking into account the factors of deterioration, the previous interventions, its environmental and historical context.
-Identify and understand the alterability and alteration of the object: natural aging of the materials; and the alteration - damages and pathologies.
-Formulate, justify and apply intervention methodologies taking into account the ethical principles of conservation and restoration.
-Know and understand the main procedures - materials and techniques - for the conservation and restoration of retables or altarpieces and woodcarvings.

Program
A. RETABLES AND THE WOODCARVING OBJECTS: ACTORS, MATERIALS AND PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES
1. Brief introduction to the history of retables and woodcarving in Portugal
2. The participants in the process of artistic production
2.1. The woodcarvers
2.2. The carpenter’s and cabinetmakers
2.3. The gilders and painters
3. The wood structures and supports
3.1. The woods in woodcarving
3.2. The construction and the art of carving
4. The surfaces
4.1. The preparations layers
4.2. The metallic sheets
4.2.1. The art of gilding silvering
4.3. The pigments, waxes, oils and varnishes
4.4. Other decorative materials: glass, stones, fabrics

B. ALTERATIONS AND DETERIORATION OF WOOD OBJECTS
1. Causes of physical nature
1.1. Temperature and Relative Humidity
1.2. Mechanical effects
2. Causes of chemical nature
2.1. Solid, liquid and gaseous pollutants
2.2. Solid and liquid reagents
3. Causes of a biological nature
3.1. Microorganisms - pests
3.2. Macro organisms - plagues
3.3. Harmful animals and plants

C. THEORY OF CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION IN THE RETABLES AND WOODCRAVING OBJECTS

1. Types of intervention - preventive, conservative, restitutive
2. Criteria aspects to take into account

D. PREPARATORY PHASE OF TREATMENT
1. Basic rules of organization and operation in the laboratory and in the repair yard
2. Registration and documentation of the work intervention process
2.1. Execution of photographic records
2.2. Execution graphic schemes
2.3. Execution of technical design and mappings
2.4. Fill of the Technical Worksheet & Record sheet
3. Identification of the materials and techniques of artwork
3.1. Naked eye identification
3.2. Macroscopic and microscopic identification
3.3. Identification with exams and analysis
4. Observation and examination of the conservation status
4.1. Identification of environmental conditions of the site of origin of the work
4.2. Identification of previous interventions
4.3. Survey of exams and analysis needs
5. Discussion of results and preparation of diagnosis
6. Formulation of treatment proposal

E. TREATMENT OF CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION
1. Treatment structures and support
1.1. Disassembling elements
1.2. Immunization / disinfestation
1.3. Consolidation
1.4. Stabilization protection of metallic elements
1.5. Review of wood joinery
1.6. Reconstitution of structural elements
1.7. Connection and gluing elements
1.8. Filling gaps
1.9. Reconstitution of missing elements
2. Surface treatment
2.1. Pre-fixing and fixing of surface layers
2.2. Attachment / gluing decorative surface layers
2.3. Cleaning Systems
2.3.1. Cleaning Types
2.3.2. Layers solubility tests
2.3.3. Repainting’s removal
2.3.4. Handling of products and materials - care and protection
2.4. Fill gaps
2.4.1. Levelling the fillings
2.5. Chromatic and pictorial reintegration
2.6. Application of protective layer

Evaluation Methodology
Acts of Integrated Evaluation and Their Weighting in Continuous and Final Evaluation:

Theoretical(50%)
-Technical Report Form + Work Sheet(25%)
-Written Work(25%)

Laboratory Practice (50%):
-Performance(35%)
-Attendance(15%)

Additional information:
-The students are obliged to comply with all assessment items, being able to choose to be globally assessed in continuous assessment, or in final assessment;
-The students, to be admitted to the final evaluation, must have a positive evaluation of the laboratory practical component, with a minimum of 9.5 values, in continuous evaluation;
-the students will be able to submit the written works of the theoretical component in final evaluation - exam period;
-Eventual improvements will be made only to the theoretical component - written works - being considered in the final global weighting the evaluation obtained in the laboratory practical component.

Bibliography
- LAMEIRA (et. al.), F. (2017). Retábulos (…). Colecção Promontória Monográfica, História da Arte. (Vol. 1-15). Faro: Departamento de Artes e Humanidades, Universidade do Algarve.
- GLÓRIA (Coord.), A. (2016). O Retábulo no Espaço Ibero-Americano: Forma, função e iconografia. (Vol. 1 e 2). Lisboa: Instituto de História da Arte da Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas / Universidade Nova.
- OLIVEIRA (Coord.), E. (2019). 18 Olhares Sobre André Soares. (Vol. 1 e 2). Braga: Edição do Autor.
- DESCAMPS (Dir.), F. (2002). Metodología para la Conservación de Retablos de Madera Policromada. Seminario Internacional Organizado por el Getty Conservation Institute y el Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico Sevilla, mayo 2002. Sevilla: Junta de Andalucía. Consejería de Cultura / The J. Paul Getty Trust.

Method of interaction
Theoretical, expository classes.
Laboratory practical classes, where interventions in retables ans woodcarvings are developed, under the guidance of the professor.
Tutorial guidance, pedagogical, technical and scientific support to the student

Software used in class
Not applicable.