Conservation and Restoration I

Conservation and Restoration

5 ECTS; 1º Ano, 2º Semestre, 15,0 T + 60,0 PL + 3,0 OT

- Fernando Manuel Conceição Costa

Not applicable.

To facilitate the initiation of students in a first contact with the realities of the Conservation and Restoration of Stones, through the visualization and discussion of examples of successful interventions in the national and international context.
Promote the taste for the mobile and immovable heritage, alerting and sensitizing to the need for its protection.
To contribute to the increase of knowledge of processes and techniques, either through laboratory experiments, in which common situations encountered by restorative curators will be simulated, or through treatments performed on real works, preparing them for future concrete situations with which these will come.

Theoretical Component
1. Degradation Natural Stone
1.1. Chemical changes
1.2. Physical changes

2. Degradation of stone work
2.1. The action of biodegradation
2.2. The effects of ice and the soluble salts
2.3. The effects of temperature variations

3. The effects of air pollution
3.1. The effects of air pollution - chemical Effect

4. Biodeterioration
4.1. Higher plants
4.2. Fungi and lichens
4.3. Algae
4.4. Bacteria

5. pathologies and forms of degradation of stone materials
5.1. Terminology
5.2. Identification and characterization
5.3. Examples

6. Some concepts used in heritage conservation
6.1. Conservation
6.2. Maintenance
6.3. Repair
6.4. Restoration
6.5. Rehab
6.6. Reconstruction

7. Intervention in stone materials
7.1. Sampling
7.2. Mineralogical-petrographic analysis
7.3. Chemical analysis
7.4. Biological analyzes

8. Cleaning (cleaning methods and techniques of stone material)
8.1. Mechanical cleaning
8.2. Cleaning with nebulized or atomized water
8.3. Cleaning with ultrasonic unit
8.4. Cleaning with micro-abrasive jet
8.5. Chemical cleaning
8.6. Cleaning with the use of folders and special clays
8.7. Cleaning with the use of folders or patches
8.8. Cleaning with use of LASER
8.9. Disinfestation, higher plants, algae, mosses and lichens

9. Consolidation
9.1. Efficacy trials; harmfulness and durability.
9.2. Consolidating application methods

10. Collages
10.1. Structural adhesives
10.2. No structural adhesives
10.3. Reinforcing Spikes

11. Fill gaps or "plastering"
11.1. Organic and inorganic ligands
11.2. Aggregates
11.3. The color

12. Protection / waterproofing
12.1. Characteristics of repellents
12.2. Application Techniques

Practical Component

1. Introduction to change the causes of stone materials
1.1. Causes of climate and environmental change
1.2. Change causes due to biological agents
1.3. Change causes due to human action

2. identification / characterization of conditions / forms of degradation
2.1. Framework of different pathologies
2.2. Photographic record
2.3. Information Processing

3. Methodology
3.1. Observation, analysis and diagnosis
3.2. Fill fact sheets
3.3. "Determining chemical and mineralogical type of rock"
3.4. Discussion and planning of such interventions
3.5. Definition of intervention criteria
3.6. Treatment proposals
3.7. Choice of materials
3.8. Documentation: graphic recording, photographic, etc.

4. Cleaning
4.1. The choice of methods and techniques
4.2. Tests and trials
4.3. Choice of products to use
4.4. Mechanical cleaning
4.5. Chemical cleaning
4.6. Others

5. Stabilization
5.1. The extraction of salts
5.2. Methods
5.3. Prelock
5.4. Fixation
5.5. Pre-consolidation
5.6. Consolidation
5.7. Techniques and products

6. Restoration
6.1. The structural reinforcement
6.2. Collages
6.3. Completion and reconstruction

Evaluation Methodology
Continuous assessment: practical part (practical performance 20% + technical report 40%) and theoretical part (research work 40%).
The assessment at the time of the exam refers only to the theoretical component. The student is only exempt from exam if he has a minimum grade of 10 values in each of the components.

- Aires-Barros, L. (1991). Alteração e Alterabilidade das Rochas. Lisboa: Instituto Nacional de Investigação Científica; Centro de Petrologia e Geoquímica da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
- Aires-Barros, L. (2001). As Rochas dos Monumentos Portugueses: Tipologias e patologias. (Vol. I e II). Lisboa: Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico.
- Barberà, X. (2010). Conservación y Restauración de Materiales Pétreos: Diagnóstico y Tratamiento. València: Universitat Politecnica de València
- Barberà, X. (2001). Identificación y Caracterización de Materiales Pétreos en Patrimonio Histórico-Artístico. València: Universitat Politecnica de València

Method of interaction
Theoretical Lectures and laboratory classes where students are asked to run diagnostics, methodologies and also conservation and restoration interventions in real context.

Software used in class
Not applicable.