Chemistry 3

Conservation and Restoration

4.5 ECTS; 2º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 TP + 2,0 OT

- Manuel Alberto Nogueira Henriques Rosa

Not applicable.

Be able to classify organic compounds used in conservation and restoration; relate properties and structure; evaluate risks involved with solvents and their interaction with materials; identify the properties of the different CR materials; understand the photo development and paper processes.

Organic Chemistry: Saturated hydrocarbons; Alkanes; Cycloalkanes; Nomenclature of saturated hydrocarbons; Nomenclature of cycloalkanes; Functional groups; alcohols and ethers; Aldehydes and ketones; Carboxylic Polymers and macromolecules: Generalities and definitions; Factors affecting cleaning in conservation and restoration: Physical cleaning techniques; Solvent cleaning techniques; Cleaning with water; Cleaning with organic solvents.
Chemistry of the black and white photography: Development: Chemical development agents, hydroquinone and metol, development mechanism. Alkaline agents, antioxidants, anti fogging and the particular case of sodium sulfite. Stop bath. Fixation and its chemical mechanism. Fixer bath composition. Toning. Washing.
Paper chemistry: Wood Chemistry; Mechanical processes; Semi-chemical processes. Chemical processes; Acid process and delignification reaction. Alkaline or kraft process and delignification reaction. Screening scrubbing and washing the unbleached pulp. Oxygen and ozone bleaching. Formation of the paper sheet.

Evaluation Methodology
Continuous assessment consists of five assessment moments in the form of written tests, each being rated at 4 points, for a final assessment that totals 20 points. Approval is obtained when the sum of all moments of evaluation is equal to or greater than 10 values. In continuous assessment a minimum grade of 4 is required, without which the student will be excluded from the exam periods.
The evaluation in the periods of Normal Examination and Appeal Examination consists of a written test quoted at 20 points.

- Horie, C. (1987). Materials for Conservation. London: Butterworth
- Wilks, (ed), H. (1984). Adhesives and Coatings. Science for Conservation Series. Book 3. London: The Conservation Unit. Museums & Galleries Commission.
- Masschelein-Kleiner, L. (1981). Les Solvants. Bruxelles: IRPA
- Masschelein-Kleiner, L. (1995). Ancient Binding Media. Roma: ICCROM

Method of interaction
Lectures and tutorials supported by case studies.

Software used in class