Graphic Technology

Design and Graphic Arts
7 ECTS; 1º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 60,0 PL + 6,0 OT

Lecturer
- Regina Aparecida Delfino
- Vitor Dinis Carita de Jesus
- Paula Alexandra Costa Leite Pinto Pereira

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
THEORETICAL
Acquisition of knowledge of the stages that constitute the different workflows in the printing industry. Acquire general knowledge about originals and their reproductivity, typography and color.
Understanding the different graphic reproduction systems and their specific application. Acquire in-depth knowledge regarding the constitution of the printer form suitable for industrial production.
ENGRAVING
Theoretical knowledge of the different technical processes of engraving, and practical domain of the technical process of engraving in etching.
TYPSETTING
Acquisition of theoretical-practical knowledge related to typsetting in manual composition. Know the typographic rules. To develop practical works in the workshop of manual composition thus providing experimentation with types and graphic composition.

Program
THEORETICAL
1. Graphic production flow (prepress, printing and postpress)
2. Originals [text: fonts / image: dash-line, continuous tone, discontinuous tone (reticles)]
3. Color composition [additive synthesis (RGB), subtractive synthesis (CMYK) and direct colors (Pantone)
4. Graphic and reproducibility
5. Definition of the printing processes (ISO standards) through forms (analog / digital), and by system
5.1. Relief Forms (typography and flexographic)
5.2. Planographic forms (offset)
5.3. Recess Forms (gravure and pad printing)
5.4. Permeographic forms (serigraphy)
6. Digital Printing
7. Comparison between printing processes

ENGRAVING
1. Theoretical knowledge of the different Technical Processes of relief
1.1. Woodcut
1.2. Linogravura
1.3. Matrices and tools to be used
1.4. Graphic suitable for these techniques
2. Theoretical knowledge of the different Technical Processes of planographic engraving
2.1. Lithographic
2.2. Matrices and tools to be used
2.3. Graphics suitable for this technique
3. Theoretical knowledge of the different Technical Processes of recess
3.1. Technical processes of direct intervention recess
3.1.1. Dry tip
3.1.2. Carve candy
3.1.3. Mezzotint (the black way)
3.2. Technical Processes of indirect intervention recess
3.2.1. Etching
3.2.2. Water-ink
3.2.3. Soft varnish
4. Practical etching exercises
4.1. Preparation of matrices. Rounding of the corners and bevelling of the edges of the matrix
4.1.2. Polishing of matrices
4.1.3. Preparation of matrices with Jewish Bitumen
4.1.4. Passage and opening of the graphism in the matrix
4.1.5. Acid bath for opening the bite
4.1.6. Cleaning of the matrix
4.2. Printing proofs of status
4.2.1. Roles and inks to use. Importance of ink dilution
4.2.2. Pressure tests on the press
4.3. Printing of proofs of author
4.3.1. Cleaning and finishing of the tests
4.3.2. Unit correction

TYPSETTING
1. Presentation of the typographic composition sector
1.1. Furniture; utensils, presses
1.2. Knowledge of metallic materials and metal alloys
1.3. Typographic Boxes
2. Typography
2.1. Typometry (Didot and Anglo-American System)
2.2. Typology: Classification as Family, Form, Spelling and Series
2.3. Classification by family: Morphological Decimal of G. Pelliteri (National Press)
3. Composition styles. Paragraph break
4. Press conferences
5. Review of evidence
6. Printing of final proof in press
7. Distribution of types
8. Mechanical composition: Monotype and Linotype
9. Photocomposition

Evaluation Methodology
Theoretical - The theoretical component will have continuous and final evaluation.
Laboratory Practices (P / L) - P / L components have continuous evaluation, being considered attendance and delivery of requested exercises.
Final note: is the arithmetic mean of the notes of the components.

Continuous evaluation
Continuous evaluation will only be carried out by frequency in the theoretical component. Students who obtain a grade equal to or greater than 10 (ten) values in each component are exempt from the final evaluation.

Final evaluation
The students will be admitted to the final evaluation with more than 2/3 (two thirds) of the practical / laboratory classes (P / L) and who have performed the practical exercises with a minimum grade of 10 (ten) values in each P / L component .
Only final evaluation of the theoretical component will be carried out.
Approval: final grade equal to or greater than 10 (ten) values, obtained by the arithmetic mean of the components.

Bibliography
- HEITLINGER, P. (2006). Tipografia, origens, formas e uso das letras. Lisboa: Dinalivro
- DAWSON, J. (1982). Guia completo de grabado e impressión - Técnicas y materiales. Barcelona: H. Blume Ediciones
- KIPPHAN, H. (2001). Handbook of print media: technologies and production methods. Heidelberg: Springer
- JOHANSSON, K. e LUNDBERG, P. e RYBERG, R. (2004). Manual de producción gráfica. Recetas.. Barcelona: Editorial Gustave Gili
- BAER, L. (2005). Produção Gráfica. São Paulo: Editora Senac
- BARBOSA, C. (2009). Manual de Produção Gráfica. Parede: Principia
- MEIRA, S. e DIAS, R. (2018). Imprimere: arte e processo nos 250 anos da Imprensa Nacional. . Lisboa: INCM, ESAD
- BAGILHOLE, R. (1996). Guia prático de Gravura. Lisboa: Editorial Estampa
- VILELA, A. (1978). Cartilha das Artes Gráficas. Braga: STGRAMINHO
- OLIVA, C. e CATAFAL, J. (2003). A Gravura. Lisboa: Editorial Estampa

Method of interaction
1.Presentation of theoretical contents using audiovisual resources. Discussion/analysis and comparison of printed items.
2.Field trip
3.Engraving: practical projects with etching.
4.Typesetting: hand setting exercises.

Software used in class
Not applicable.