# Hydraulics and Pneumatics

Mechanical Engineering, Publication in the Diário da República - Despacho nº 14312/2015 - 02/12/2015

5 ECTS; 2º Ano, 2º Semestre, 15,0 T + 30,0 PL + 15,0 TP + 3,50 OT

Lecturer
- Bruno Miguel Santana Chaparro

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
- Introduction to the fundamental principles inherent to hydraulic and pneumatic phenomena.
- Point out the advantages of pneumatic and hydraulic schemes in the various applications.
- Identify and characterize the pneumatic and hydraulic components that constitute a network for the production and distribution of compressed air and / or oil.
- Interpret the schematic form of the pneumatic and hydraulic diagrams identifying the components in their actual form.
- Analyze graphs and phase diagrams.
- Dimension components and / or proceed to the correct selection of the same in catalog.
- Implement hydraulic or pneumatic diagrams.
- Know techniques of detection and diagnosis of faults in hydraulic and pneumatic systems.

Program
1.Introduction to Automation
1.1. Objectives of Automation
1.1.1. Types of Automation
1.1.2. Automation Components
1.1.3. Automation Applications

2.Introduction to Digital Systems
2.1. Selection between two unique possibilities - True and False
2.1.1. Logical states? Digital and Analog
2.1.2.Table of Truth
2.2.Features of Integrated Circuits
2.2.1.CI encapsulation types:

3. Numbering Systems and Codes
3.1.Binary System
3.1.1.Binary Conversion - Decimal
3.1.2. Decimal Conversion - Binary
3.1.6.Decimal Conversion - Octal
3.1.7.Analysis - Decimal
3.1.8.Analysis - Binary
3.1.10.Binary Conversion - Octal
3.2.Code Gray
3.2.1.Binary Conversion - Gray
3.2.2.Conversion Gray - Binary

4. Boolean Algebra and Logic Circuits
4.1.Logical ports
Logic function - YES
Logic function - NOT
Logic Function - AND
4.1.4.Logic function - OR
4.2.Simplification of Functions
Combinatorial logic
4.2.2. Analytical method
4.2.3.Karnough map
4.2.4.Implementation

5.Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems
5.1. Physics Overview
5.2.Hydraulic energy
5.2.1.Main Components in Hydraulics
5.2.2.Pumps and hydraulic motors
5.2.3. Structure of a hydraulic installation
5.3.Energy Pneumatics
5.4.Compressed Air Center
5.4.1.Compressor
5.4.2. Reservatory
5.4.4.Distribution
5.5.Pneumatic Cylinders
5.6.Valves
5.6.1.Identification of valve connections
5.6.2.Types of Valve Actuation
5.6.3 Directional Valves
5.6.4 Flow Valves
5.6.5 Locking Valves
5.7.Temporary Timers

6. Sequential method
6.1.Pneumatic Cylinders - Operating diagrams
6.1.1.Equipment Diagrams Operation Diagram
6.1.2.Diagrams of operation without conflicts
6.1.3.Diagrams of operation with conflicts

7.Hydraulic
7.2.Applications
7.3.Foundations of Physics
7.3.1.Hydrostatic
Hydrodynamics
7.4.Hydraulic generators
7.4.1.Pumps
7.4.1.1.Outer gear bundles
7.4.1.2.Interior gear pumps
7.4.1.4. Screw pumps
7.4.1.5 Axial piston pumps
Hydraulic Valves
7.5.1 Distributing Valves
7.5.2 Manometric valves
7.5.3 Flowmeter Valves
7.5.4 Check Valves
7.5.5.Hydraulic installation
7.5.6. Directional valves
7.5.6.1.Assembly of directional valves in series
7.5.6.2.Action of parallel directional valves
8. Maintenance in hydraulic and pneumatic systems.

Evaluation Methodology
Assessment by class attendance: The evaluation by class attendance is composed by the accomplishment of practical laboratory assignments throughout the classes, plus a written test.

Assessment by exam: The evaluation by exam is composed of the score obtained in the practical laboratory work performed during the classes and a written test in any examination period.

The final mark in each evaluation is obtained by the simple arithmetic mean between the practical laboratory component and the corresponding written component.

Bibliography
- Fialho, A. (2003). Automação Pneumática. (Vol. 1). (pp. 1-324). Didáctica Érica: Didáctica Érica
- Novais, J. (1997). Método Sequencial Para Automatização Electropneumática. (Vol. 1). (pp. 1-473). Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian
- Fialho, A. (2004). Automação Hidráulica. (Vol. 1). (pp. 1-200). Didáctica Érica: Didáctica Érica
- Parr, A. (2011). Hydraulics and Pneumatics. UK: Butterworth-Heinemann
- Almeida Santos, A. e Ferreira da Silva, A. (2016). Automação Óleo-Hidráulica. Porto: Publindustria
- Ferreira da Silva, A. e Almeida Santos, A. (2014). Automação Pneumática. Porto: Publindustria

Method of interaction
Theory classes, problem solving classes and laboratory assignments.

Software used in class
FluidSim