# Process Optimization

**Mestrado em Tecnologia Quimica**

6 ECTS; 1º Ano, 2º Semestre, 30,0 T + 16,0 PL + 14,0 TP

**Lecturer**

**Prerequisites**

Prior knowledge of chemical engineering design, operation and management; Mathematical analysis; Algebra and Numerical Methods.

**Objectives**

Students should be able to identify optimization problems in chemical processes, formulate them mathematically, choose appropriate strategies to solve them and use optimization software in integrated environments for problem solving and algorithmic solvers.

**Program**

PART I - Theory

1. Introduction and Motivation

Formulation of linear and non-linear optimization problems in

chemical technology.

2. Linear Programming

(a) Representation forms of a linear program and solution of simple

problems using the graphical method.

(b) Simplex method.

(c) Linear duality.

3. Integer Linear Programming

(a) Introduction and properties.

(b) Cutting-plane method.

(c) Brach-and-bound, branch-and-cut and branch-and-price algorithms.

4. Dynamic Programming

(a) Introduction and properties;

(b) Bellman Equation.

PART II - Formulation and solution of optimization problems in

Chemical Technology

1. Application to Industrial Management, Production Management and

Flowsheeting

(a) Project selection;

(b) Production optimization in industrial units subject to

internal and external constraints;

(c) Optimum distribution of materials;

(d) Optimal flowsheet selection.

2. Application to heat transfer and energy conservation

(a) Heat recovery;

(b) Multiplie effect evaporators design optimization;

(c) Optimization of steam generation systems.

3. Application to the Transport of fluids

(a) Pipes diameters optimization;

(b) Adiabatic compression work minimization.

4. Application to separation processes

(a) Design and operation optimization of fractionating distillation

columns.

(b) Filters operation optimization;

(c) Operation optimization of floaters in series.

5. Application to Chemical and Biological Reactors

(a) Optimum residence time;

(b) mMlti-objective optimization of selectivity and yield in a

reaction system;

(c) Optimization of a thermal cracker.

PART III - Optimization Computational Methods

(a) linear programming Solvers: Introduction to CPLEX and MINOS.

(b) Using the GAMS environment in Integer Linear Programming.

(c) Guidelines for the implementation of computational project work.

**Evaluation Methodology**

Continuous assessment: mid-term written test (12 grade points)+a computational project (8 grade points). Pass requirement: min. of 3 pts (out of 12) in the test and 4 pts (out of 8)in the project. Test+project at least 9.5 Exam pass mark: 9.5

**Bibliography**

- Ramalhete, M. e Guerreiro, J. e Magalhães, A. (1994). *Programação Linear*. Lisboa: McGraw-Hill

- Lieberman, G. e Hiller, F. (1989). * Introduction to Operations Research*. New York: McGraw-Hill

- Edgar, T. e Himmelblau, D. e Lasdon, L. (2001). * Optimization of Chemical Processes*. New York: McGraw-Hill.

**Method of interaction**

Lectures on optimisation methods. Problem-solving applied to chemical technology.

**Software used in class**

General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS)