Raw Materials (Option)

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
5.5 ECTS; 3º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 P

- Natércia Maria Ferreira dos Santos

Not applicable.

Be able to characterise fibrous and non-fibrous materials and to become
familiar with refining equipment. Be aware of the influence of refining
and their operational conditions in the final characteristics of paper.

I. Sustainable development. Biodiversity.
I1. Portuguese forest.
I2. Forest products.
II. Forest products with applications in the paper industry.
III. Physical and mechanical properties of fibrous materials.
III. 1. Water-fibre connections.
III. 2. Effects of refining process no fibres.
IV. Beating
IV. 1. Influencing factors. Effects of beating operation on fibres.
IV. 2. Influence of beating process on physical paper properties.
IV. 3. Influence of beating process on fibres classification.
IV. 4. Influencie of the consistency and the temperature in the refining process.
V. Physical and mechanical properties of nonfibrous materials.
V.1. Bending agents
V.2. Fillers
V.3. Retention agentes
V.4. Optical brightners

Evaluation Methodology
I. Literature review report.
II. Laboratory coursework and reports.
Final mark is the average of the two components.
Minimum passing mark: 10/20 in both assessment components.

- Biermann, C. (1996). Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking. S. Diego: Academic Press
- Paulapuro, H. (2000). Papermaking Part1, Stock Preparation and Wet End. Helsinquia: Fapet Oy
- Soderbjelm, L. e Levlin, J. (1999). Pulp and Paper Testing. Helsinquia: Fapet Oy
- Velho, J. (2003). Mineral Fillers for Paper: Why, What, How. Tomar - Portugal: Tecnicelpa

Method of interaction
Explanatory lectures and laboratory classes.

Software used in class
Not applicable.