Instrumentation and Measurements

Mechanical Engineering, Publication in the Diário da República - Despacho nº 14312/2015 - 02/12/2015

5.5 ECTS; 3º Ano, 1º Semestre, 15,0 T + 30,0 TP + 15,0 P + 3,50 OT


While not compulsory, students are advised to previously do the course Electricity and Electronics.

To master key concepts about measurement, error, uncertainty and calibration. Get acquainted with the main electrical measurement tools. To know the basics about signal processing, filtering and acquisition systems as well as sensors, actuators and data transmission.

1. Measurement, Measurement Methods and Measurement Errors
1.1 Accuracy and precision
1.2 Gross errors, systematic errors and random errors
1.3 Result of a measurement and associated uncertainty
2. Measuring Instruments
2.1 Characteristics of measuring instruments
2.1.1 Resolution
2.1.2 Accuracy
2.1.3. Accuracy class
2.1.4 Maximum permissible errors
2.15 Standard
2.1.6 Calibration
2.2. Analog instrumentation
2.2.1 Reading Analog Instruments
2.1.2 Parallax Error
2.1.3 Systematic errors and correction factors
2.1.2 Most probable value technique
2.1.3. Uncertainty associated with measurement in an analog instrument
2.2.1 Analog instruments for measuring electrical quantities

2.3. Digital instrumentation
2.3.1 Reading digital instruments
2.3.2 Scan Errors

3. Introduction to control systems
3.1 Open Loop System
3.2 Closed Loop System
3.3 Manual Control
3.4 Feedback Control

4. Signal Conditioning Circuits
4.1 Voltage divider
4.2. Wheatstone Bridge
4.3. RC filters
4.3 Timer 555
4.4 Digital-Analog (DAC's) and Analog-Digital (ADC's)

5. Sensors, transducers and actuators
5.1 Static Characteristics of Sensors
5.2 Dynamic Characteristics of Sensors
5.3 Position and speed sensors
5.4 Linear and inductive sensors
5.5 Capacitive sensor
5.6 Sensor extensometer
5.7 Photoelectric sensor
5.8 Optical rotary sensors
5.9 Hall effect speed sensors
5.10 Magnetic sensors
5.11 Pressure sensors
5.12 Temperature transducers
5.13 Actuators
5.14 DC motor control
5.15 Autonomous Systems

Evaluation Methodology
Continuous assessment: Project;
Periodic assessment: Frequency, Exam, Appeal Exam or Student Worker Exam.

Elements of the final evaluation: Written part(WP) with minimum grade of 9 and project (P) minimum grade 9.5.

Final grade calculation formula: 50%WP+50%P

- Cabral, P. (2004). Erros e Incertezas nas Medições. Porto: IEP-ISEP
- Morris, A. (2001). Measurement & Instrumentation Principles. UK: Butterworth-Heinemann

Method of interaction
Theoretical classes describing the fundamental principles. Theoretic-practical classes with exercises resolution and laboratory classes that aim at the contact with instrumentation techniques in the scope of project development.

Software used in class