# Physics

Electronics and Computer Engineering, Publication in the Diário da República - Despacho n.º 7795/2021 - 09/08/2021

6 ECTS; 1º Ano, 2º Semestre, 28,0 T + 42,0 TP

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
O1 - Development of a critical spirit that allows understanding, Interpreting and applying knowledge in the field of physics and technology related to this area;
O2  Application of logical reasoning to concrete problems, using tools from physics and mathematics;
O3  Knowledge and development of skills for analysis, and for solving problems in the field of Electrostatics, namely in the study of electrostatic phenomena associated with electrical loads at rest. In this context, it is intended to develop the ability to observe, measure and analyze physical phenomena associated with the main properties of Electrostatics, such as electric charge, electrification, electric force, electric field, electric potential, electric potential energy and electric current.
O4 - Know how to measure physical quantities, analyze data and build correlations between variables

Program
Chapter 1 - Physical Quantities, Units and their representation
1.1 Physical Quantities and their units. International System of Units
1.2 Dimensional Analysis
1.2.1 Application of dimensional equations
1.3 Significant figures
1.4 Rounding Rules
1.5 Scientific notation - Powers of base 10
1.6 Reduction of Units
1.7 Notion of Vector. Operations with Vectors
Chapter 2 - Observation and Measurement
2.1 Importance of the measure. Types of errors in measurements and measurements
2.2 Calculation of errors in direct measurements
2.3 Calculation of errors in indirect measures
2.3.1 Approximate Calculation Method
2.3.2 Exact Calculation Method
2.4 Distribution of measures
Chapter 3  Electrostatics: Properties and action of an electrical charge. Electric Field
3.1 Electric charge properties
3.2 Action of electrical charge
3.2.1 Interaction between electrical charges. Coulomb's Law.
3.2.2 Interaction between more than two loads. Overlap Principle
3.3 Electric field
3.3.1 Electric field properties
3.3.2 Electric field of a discrete distribution of point electric charges
3.4 Continuous load distribution
3.4.1 Electric charge density
3.4.2 Electric field of a continuous distribution of electric charges
3.4.2.1 Linear Load Distribution
3.4.2.2 Surface Cargo Distribution
3.4.2.3 Volume Distribution of Load
3.5 Electric Field in Systems with Symmetry
3.5.1 Electric Flow
3.5.2 Gauss's Law
3.5.3 Examples of electric fields in continuous charge distributions

Chapter 4 - Electric Potential
4.1 Work and Energy
4.1.1 Definition of system and energy of a system
4.1.2 Definition of Work. Work done by a conservative force
4.2 Work and Electrical Potential
4.2.1 Work done by the electrical force
4.2.2 Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential
4.2.3 Properties of Electric Potential
4.2.4 Electric Potential of a point charge system
4.2.5 Energy of an electrical charge system
4.2.6 Electric Potential Difference
4.3 Electric Potential and Electric Field
4.3.1 Equipotential Lines
4.3.2 Relationship between Electric Field and Electric Potential
4.3.3 Uniform Electric Field
4.4 Electric Potential of a continuous charge distribution
4.4.1 Electric Potential due to Load Filament
4.4.2 Electric Potential due to a Charged Ring
Chapter 5 - Conductors, Capacitors and Dielectrics
5.1 Electrical properties of materials
5.2 Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium
5.2.1 Properties of a Conductor in Electrostatic Equilibrium
5.3 Insulated Conductor
5.3.1 Capacity of an insulated conductor
5.4 Condensers
5.4.1 Parallel flat plate condenser
5.4.2 Spherical Condenser
5.4.3 Cylindrical condenser
5.4.4 Energy stored in a capacitor
5.4.5 Condensers Association
5.5 Dielectrics
5.5.1 Capacity of a Capacitor with an Interplate Dielectric
Chapter 6  Electric Current. Transfer and Conversion of Energy in an Electric Circuit
6.1 Electric current
6.1.1 Electric Current Intensity
6.1.1 Electric Current Density
6.1.3 Continuity of the electrical current
6.2 Difference of Potential and Electric Energy
6.2.1 Electric Power
6.3 Resistance of a conductor. Ohm's Law
6.3.1 Ohm's Law
6.3.2 Factors on which Resistance depends
6.4 Transfer and Conversion of Energy in an Electric Circuit
6.4.1 Joule's Law
6.5 Applications of Ohm's Law: Resistance Association
6.5.1 Association of Series and Parallel Resistances

Evaluation Methodology
Rating: 0 to 20 values.
Final approval with a minimum of 9.5 values
Minimum grade for admission to the 2nd frequency: 7.0 values

Evaluation:
1. Continuous assessment: two written tests containing development problems and questions; 1st frequency in the middle of the semester and 2nd frequency at the end of the semester with a weighting of 50% each, for the final grade.

2. Final written test for the student who has not been approved in continuous assessment (or who wants to improve the grade) in the Exam and/or Appeal Exam, with a weighting of 100% for the final grade.

Bibliography
(2004). Fundamentos de Física . Coimbra: Almedina
(2016). Electromagnetismo. Portugal: McGraw-Hill
(2016). Fundamentos de Física - Electromagnetismo. (Vol. 3). S. Paulo: Livros Técnicos e Científicos
(2002). Sistema Internacional de Unidades. (Vol. 3). Lisboa: Plátano

Method of interaction
1. Presential
M1: Theoretical classes
M2: Theoretical-practical classes
M3: Mentoring Guidance
M4: e-learning
2. Autonomous:
M6: consultation of resources on the internet
M7: Resolution of additional exercises

Software used in class
Not applicable.