Materials 2

Conservation and Restoration
4.5 ECTS; 1º Ano, 2º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 TP + 2,0 OT

Lecturer
- Eduardo Jorge Marques de Oliveira Ferraz

Prerequisites
Prerequisites: Materials 1.
Corequisites: not applicable.

Objectives
1. Identify and be familiar with the process of historical and traditional production of classic ceramics, vitreous, metals and alloys materials;
2. Knowing the fundamental structure, the general properties and their behavior;
3. Identify the major decay mechanisms and resulting products.

Program
Theoretical component:
1. Classical ceramic materials
1.1. Characteristics and classification
1.1.1. Types
1.1.2. Function
1.1.3. ?Red clay? versus ?white clay? earthenware ceramic
1.1.4. Products: utilitarian and decorative versus wall and floor tiles
1.2. Historical techniques and traditional production
1.2.1. Raw materials and plasticity
1.2.2. Ceramic composition
1.2.3. Conformation, drying and firing (heating and cooling)
1.2.4. Finishes
1.3. Microstructure and general properties
1.3.1. Solid versus amorphous state
1.3.2. Shrinkage and expansion
1.3.3. Porosity
1.3.4. Density
1.3.5. Mechanical and chemical strength
1.4. Deterioration
1.4.1. Key factors and mechanisms
1.4.2. Contaminants and defects from conformation, drying and firing
1.4.3. Common pathologies: efflorescence and ceramic/mortar interaction

2. Vitreous materials
2.1. Characteristics and classification
2.1.1. Types: glass, frits, glazes and ceramic glazes
2.1.2. Function
2.1.3. Products: archaeological glass, archaeological glazed pottery and stained glass
2.2. Historical techniques and traditional production
2.2.1. Raw materials and viscosity
2.2.2. Melting, cooling and molding
2.2.3. Annealing, tempers (thermal and chemical)
2.2.4. Finishes
2.3. Microstructure and general properties
2.3.1. Amorphous state
2.3.2. Shrinkage and expansion
2.3.3. Porosity
2.3.4. Mechanical and chemical strength
2.4. Deterioration
2.4.1. Key factors and mechanisms
2.4.2. Contaminants, defects from melting, casting and annealing and application of coatings
2.4.3. Glassy coatings
2.4.4. Ceramic/glaze compatibility
2.4.5. Common pathologies: devitrification and expansion by moisture

3. Metallic materials and alloys
3.1. Characteristics and classification
3.1.1. Gold and silver alloy
3.1.2. Copper and lead alloys
3.1.3. Ferroalloys
3.1.4. Function
3.1.5. Products: archaeological metals, support in stained glass, sculpture and enamels
3.2. Historical techniques and traditional production
3.2.1. Raw materials and fusion
3.2.2. Casting and forming
3.2.3. Heat treatments
3.2.4. Connecting components and finishes
3.3. Microstructure and general properties
3.3.1. Solid state
3.3.2. Ductility versus brittleness and fragility versus friability
3.3.3. Dilation
3.3.4. Porosity and density
3.3.5. Thermal and electrical conductivity
3.3.6. Mechanical strength
3.4. Deterioration
3.4.1. Key factors and mechanisms
3.4.2. Contaminants and production and defects: shrinkage and porosity
3.4.3. Coatings: enamels and electroplating
3.4.4. Common pathologies: rupture, fatigue, creep and corrosion

Theoretical-practical component:
1. Moisture content
2. Physical properties of a clay material
2.1. Plasticity: Atterberg plasticity index
2.2. Green-dry shrinkage
3. Forming, drying and firing of ceramic samples
4. Physical properties of ceramic samples
4.1. Apparent and real volume
4.2. Green-dry, dry-fired and full shrinkage
4.3. Open and close porosity
4.4. Water absorption
4.5. Apparent and real density
5. Bending strength of ceramic samples
6. Glazing and decoration of ceramic samples
7. Aluminum casting and forming an object by sand molds

Evaluation Methodology
1. Theoretical component (50%) assessed through closed-book exam.
2. Theoretical-practical component (50%) assessed through closed-book exam.

Bibliography
- Hodges, H. (1995). Artifacts: An introduction to early materials and technology. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press
- Godfraind, S. e Pender, R. (2012). Practical Building Conservation: Glass and Glazing. Farnham: Ashgate
- Godfraind, S. e Pender, R. e Martin, B. (2012). Practical Building Conservation: Metals. Farnham: Ashgate
- Willett, C. e Godfraind, S. e Stewart, J. e McCaig, I. e Henry, A. (2015). Practical Building Conservation: Earth, Brick and Terracotta. Farnham: Ashgate

Method of interaction
1. Lectures focused on the exploration of basic concepts and elementary principles.
2. Laboratory classes to apply technical concepts, including observation, calculus and testing.

Software used in class
Theoretical component: Not applicable.
Theoretical-practical component: spreadsheet.