Materials 1

Conservation and Restoration
4.5 ECTS; 1º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 TP + 2,0 OT

Lecturer
- Eduardo Jorge Marques de Oliveira Ferraz

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
1. Identify rocks and minerals with common occurrence
2. Know the rocks used in stone and earth construction
3. Know the production of binders and mortars
4. Know the general properties and behaviour of the mortars

Program
1. Materials and matter
1.1. Material groups: natural and artificial, organic and inorganic, non-metallic, metallic and energetic, and composites
1.2. Process, input and output
1.3. Natural resource. Raw material.
1.4. States of matter
1.4.1. State changes: temperature and pressure
1.4.2. Physical and chemical structure of the states of matter
1.5. Energy of the states and principle of minimum energy

2. Stone materials, sediments and minerals
2.1. Igneous rocks: granite and basalt
2.1.1. Magmatism and volcanism
2.2. Sedimentary rocks: limestone and gypsum
2.2.1. Weathering, erosion, transport, deposition and diagenesis
2.3 Metamorphic rocks: shale and marble
2.3.1. Metamorphism
2.4. Sediments: sand, silt and clay
2.5. Minerals: silica, feldspar, calcite, gypsite and clay minerals
2.5.1. Types: oxides, hydroxides, sulphates and carbonates. Silicates and aluminosilicates
2.6. Alteration and alterability
2.6.1. The lithosphere interaction with atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere
2.6.2. Relationship between rock, mineral, sediment and clay

3. Binder materials and mortars
3.1 Classic binders: gypsum, lime, lime with hydraulic properties and cement
3.1.1. Types: air and hydraulic
3.2. Classic mortars: simple and bastard
3.2.1. Main function and application
3.3. Traditional production of binders
3.3.1. Raw materials
3.3.2. Calcination
3.3.3. Grinding
3.4. Traditional production of mortars
3.4.1. Composition and formulation
3.4.2. Components
3.4.3. Mixture
3.4.4. Curing and ageing
3.5. Pozzolans and pozzolanic materials
3.5.1. Types: natural and syntectic
3.6. Modern binders and mortars
3.6.1. Geopolymers based on calcined kaolin
3.7. Structure and general properties of the mortars
3.7.1. Solid and liquid state
3.7.2. Fresh and hardened state
3.7.3. Setting time
3.7.4. Shrinkage and cracking
3.7.5. Porosity
3.7.6. Water, mechanical and chemical strength
3.8. Deterioration of mortars
3.8.1. Main factors and mechanisms
3.8.2. Defects of formulation, mixture, application and hardening
3.8.3. Common pathologies: effloresces and ceramic-mortar interaction

Theoretical-practical component:
1. Concept of sample and subsample. Representative sample. Relationship between properties and sampling
2. Hardened Mohs scale
3. Identification of minerals to the naked eye (macroscopic examination) in hand samples.
4. Macroscopic examination of the texture of igneous (acid and basic), sedimentary (detrital and carbonated) and metamorphic rocks
5. Particle size distribution by sieving through dry and wet process
6. Clayey fraction separation by sedimentation using the Stokes’ Law
7. Generic formulation of lime or cement mortar
8. Mixing of mortar. Fresh stat tests. Flow table test. Conformation of prismatic test specimens.
9. Curing of mortar. Hardened state tests. Mechanical strength (bending and compression) evaluated in the conformed samples

Evaluation Methodology
1. Theoretical component (50%) assessed through two closed-book exam.
2. Theoretical-practical component (50%) assessed through two closed-book exam.
Extracurricular activities allow additional acquisition up to four values.

Bibliography
- Borrelli, E. e Urland, A. (1999). ARC Laboratory Handbook. Rome: ICCROM
- Henry, A. (2012). Practical Building Conservation: Mortars, Renders & Plasters. Farnham: Ashgate

Method of interaction
1. Lectures focused on the exploration of basic concepts and elementary principles
2. Laboratory classes which applying of technical concepts, including observation, calculus and testing

Software used in class
Theoretical: not applicable
Theoretical-practical: spreadsheet