Chemistry 2

Conservation and Restoration
4.5 ECTS; 1º Ano, 2º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 TP + 2,0 OT

Lecturer
- Manuel Alberto Nogueira Henriques Rosa

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
The students should be able to describe chemical balances (acid-base, coordination and oxid-reduction)and identify these phenomena in artifacts and cultural property.

Program
Teoretical component
5-Chemical equilibrium: General notions of chemical equilibrium; The equilibrium constant; The heterogeneous equilibrium; The quotient of the reaction; Factors affecting balance; Equilibria of solubility; Acid-base equilibria; Equilibria of complexation.
6-Ionic equilibrium (Acid-base): Bronstead-Lowry acid systems; Autoionization of water; Calculation of the concentrations of the hydrogen ion and the hydroxide ion; Criteria for acidic, basic and neutral solutions; The concept of pH; Solutions of strong acids and bases; PH measurement; Exemplification of pH measurement of solutions with pH meter, and universal indicators.
7-Complexity Equilibrium: History; General concepts about coordination compounds and complexes; Balance of formation of complexes; Most common complexes in CR practice; Conclusion.
8-Oxidation-reduction: Oxidation-reduction state; Oxidation-reduction concepts; writing and balancing of redox semi-reactions; writing of a complete redox reaction; Oxidant and reducer; Oxidation and reduction in organic compounds; Reduction potential; Galvanic or voltaic cells; Electrolytic cells; Corrosion of metals; Chemical cleaning by redox mechanisms; Final considerations.

Evaluation Methodology
There are five evaluation moments, four in the theoretical component and one in the practical component. Each evaluation moment is valued at 4 values for a total of 20 values.
The sum of the results obtained in the five moments of evaluation is equal to the final evaluation.
All students will have to have evaluation in the practical component without which they will be excluded from the exam season.

Bibliography
- Wolbers, R. (2000). Cleaning Painted Surfaces: Aqueous methods. London: Archetype Publications
- Moles, A. e Matteini, M. (1989). La Chimica nel Restauro. Roma: Nardini Ed.
- Antunes, J. (2016). Apontamentos de Quimica 2. Tomar: IPT
- Eastop, D. (1998). Chemical Principles of Textile Conservation. Oxford: Butterworth

Method of interaction
Lectures, tutorials and laboratory classes.

Software used in class
Not applicable