Chemistry 2

Conservation and Restoration

4.5 ECTS; 1º Ano, 2º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 TP + 2,0 OT

Lecturer
- Manuel Alberto Nogueira Henriques Rosa

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
The students should be able to describe chemical balances (acid-base, coordination and oxide-reduction)and identify these phenomena in artifacts and cultural property.

Program
Chemical equilibrium: General notions of chemical equilibrium; The equilibrium constant; The heterogeneous equilibrium; The quotient of the reaction; Factors affecting balance; Equilibria of solubility; Acid-base equilibria; Equilibria of complexation.
Ionic equilibrium (Acid-base): Bronstead-Lowry acid systems; Autoionization of water; Calculation of the concentrations of the hydrogen ion and the hydroxide ion; Criteria for acidic, basic and neutral solutions; The concept of pH; Solutions of strong acids and bases; PH measurement; Exemplification of pH measurement of solutions with pH meter, and universal indicators.
Complexity Equilibrium: History; General concepts about coordination compounds and complexes; Balance of formation of complexes; Most common complexes in CR practice; Conclusion.
Oxidation-reduction: Oxidation-reduction state; Oxidation-reduction concepts; writing and balancing of redox semi-reactions; writing of a complete redox reaction; Oxidant and reducer; Oxidation and reduction in organic compounds; Reduction potential; Galvanic or voltaic cells; Electrolytic cells; Corrosion of metals; Chemical cleaning by redox mechanisms; Final considerations.

Evaluation Methodology
There are five moments of continuous evaluation, four in the theoretical component and one in the practical component. Each evaluation moment is valued at 4 points, for a total of 20 points. The sum of the results obtained in the five evaluation moments is equal to the final mark.
All students will have to be assessed in the practical component without which they will be excluded from the regular exam period.
In exam and recource exam periods, students can be evaluated in only one of the two components or simultaneously in both.
The evaluation of the theoretical component consists of a written test and the practical component in the delivery of a new report of the practical work carried out.

Bibliography
- Eastop, D. (1998). Chemical Principles of Textile Conservation. Oxford: Butterworth
- Antunes, J. (2016). Apontamentos de Quimica 2. Tomar: IPT
- Matteini, M. e Moles, A. (1989). La Chimica nel Restauro. Roma: Nardini Ed.
- Wolbers, R. (2000). Cleaning Painted Surfaces: Aqueous methods. London: Archetype Publications

Method of interaction
Lectures, tutorials and laboratory classes.

Software used in class
Not applicable