History of the Technology of Tanning

TeSP - Arte e Técnica do Couro
3.5 ECTS; 1º Ano, 1º Semestre, 45,0 TP

Lecturer

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
To provide theoretical and practical knowledge in the fields of History of Leather and Tanning in Portugal and worldwide. Know and understand the different production technologies and materials used. Acquire knowledge about their history, production, aesthetics and artistic creation.

Program
General concepts and specific history of manufacturing and production: parchment,skins, leather.
1-Notions, definitions, classifications, tipologies: Leather provenance. Diagrams. Phylogenetic position of bovines. The classes of leather. The main types of leather. The leather grain. Leather substitutes: VEGAN LEATHER; REGENERATED LEATHER; SYNTHETIC LEATHER; ARTIFICIAL LEATHER. Glossary.
2-The tanning industry in Portugal and worldwide. The surge of leather and similar artifacts. Prehistory and archaeological artifacts. The industry throght the centuries in Asia, Egypt, Pergamon, Hellenistic Period, Roman Empire, Al-Andalus, Europe, Russia and the Americas. The craft and related trades.
3-History and techniques of production: Rawhide; Morocco Leather; Boiled Leather; Russia Leather; Patent Leather; The Nubuck; The Suede; The Cordovan; Exotic leathers - Mammals; Birds; Fish; Reptiles.
4-Raw materials used. Types and récipes.
5-Art in leather. Techniques for artistic production, decoration and texture. Styles. Types, materials, equipments: Aniline Leather; High-gloss leather; Semi-Aniline Leather; Pigmented leather; The Patina; Grain Leather; Embossed Leather; Velvety leather; Skins with fur. Leather Dyeing; Leather Painting; Pyrography; Leather Carving; Cordwain; Learther Stamping / embossing; Leather Gilding; Leather Moulding; Laser cut.
6-Identification of materials and techniques.

Evaluation Methodology
Practical works (50%) and written exam (50%). For approval it is necessary that the sum grade is equal or higher than 9,5 out of 20.

Bibliography
- REED, R. (1973). Ancient Skins, Parchments, and Leathers. USA: Academic Press Inc.
- THOMPSON, R. e Mould, Q. (2011). Leather tanneries: the archaeological evidence. London: Archetype Press
- PROCTER, H. (1885). A text-book of Tanning: A Treatise on the Conversion of Skins into Leather, both Practical and Theoretical. London: E. & F.N. Spon
- HARRIS, S. e VELDMEIJER, A. (2014). Why Leather?. Leiden: Sidestone Press

Method of interaction
Expository theoretical and practical classes, which describe and illustrate the subject of the unit. Research and development of practical work in class context on specific aspects of the history of the tanning technology.

Software used in class
Windows OFFICE - WORD. POWERPOINT. INTERNET.