Environmental Engineering

Mestrado em Tecnologia Quimica, Publication in the Diário da República - Despacho nº 9183/2020 - 25/09/2020

6 ECTS; 2º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 16,0 PL + 14,0 TP

Lecturer
- Marco António Mourão Cartaxo
- Cecília de Melo Correia Baptista

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
An overview of some environmental issues of great relevance. Provide the knowledge required to debate these issues.
Students should be able to identify key monitoring parameters and describe the major treatment technologies available, namely in relation to: atmospheric pollution and gaseous emissions; water pollution and conventional treatment systems; solid waste management systems and treatment of municipal solid waste; unconventional treatment technologies in soil remediation and water treatment; bioremediation.

Program
Theoretical component
1. Hydric pollution
1.1. Liquid effluents: types, sources and effects of pollution. Prevention and reduction. Point and diffuse pollution sources. Pollutant classification. Groundwater and ocean waters pollution.
1.2. Legal aspects (national and European);emission limit values.
1.3. Conventional treatment systems: wastewater and drinking water.

2. Soil pollution and solid Wastes
2.1. Soil pollution: main pollutants and their effects. Pollution sources. Interaction of pollutants with the soil. Monitoring of soil pollution.
2.2. Management systems. Recycling. Landfills.
2.3. Treatment of urban solid waste: organic and energetic valorisation; co-incineration and energy recovery plants; composting; landfills and biogas production; anaerobic digestion systems. Waste as a resource.

3. Atmospheric pollution
3.1. The atmosphere: regions of the atmosphere; the ozone layer; urban pollution; the greenhouse effect and global warming.
3.2. Energy production: gaseous emissions; consequences for the environment; conventional and alternative fuels - advantages and disadvantages.
3.3. Atmospheric contaminants and treatment systems. International Legislation and Agreements.

4. Unconventional treatment technologies. Soil remediation: electrokinetic remediation of soils, other types of remediation of soils and groundwater. Advanced Oxidation Processes: non-electrochemical oxidation advanced processes(non-photochemical and photochemical methods) and electrochemical oxidation advanced processes (direct and indirect). Electrochemical Reduction in water treatment.

5.Bioremediation
5.1. Main organic pollutants. Contamination plumes generated by leaks and spills.
5.2. Mechanisms of natural and accelerated degradation. Factors influencing microbial growth and bioremediation. Bioremediation "in situ" and "ex situ" - advantages and limitations.
5.3. Bioremediation of groundwater. Bioremediation of soils. Phytoremediation. Bioremediation in solid phase. Bioremediation in suspended phase. Bioremediation processes used for degradation of specific compounds.

Practical component
1. Degradation of phenol by AOPs (Fenton).
2. Electrokinetic remediation of a soil contaminated with lead.
3. Bioremediation of a soil using biosurfactants produced by yeasts.

Evaluation Methodology
Classification:

A (Chapters 1, 2, 3 and 4): Written test (60%), thematic work with oral presentation (25%) and reports of the experimental works (15%).
B (Chapter 5): Written test or thematic work (50%) and report of the experimental work (50%).

Final grade = (0.75xA)+(0,25xB)

Bibliography
- Sincero, G. e Sincero, A. (1996). Environmental engineering: a design approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
- Cann, M. e Baird, C. (2012). Environmental chemistry. New York: W. H. Freeman
- Velázquez-Fernandez, J. e Muñiz-Hernández, S. (2014). Bioremediation: processes, challenges and future prospects. New York: Nova Publishers

Method of interaction
Lectures where the fundamental principles are described. Theoretical and practical classes where the resolution of application exercises is done and laboratory works about the subjects taught.

Software used in class
Not applicable.