4 ECTS; 1º Ano, 2º Semestre, 30,0 TP + 5,0 OT
- Maria Teresa da Luz Silveira
Development of capacities for the comprehension of general chemistry and its application in the graphic processes, Comprehension of the chemical variables within the process.
1 - Ionic balance: acid-base systems Bronsted-Lowry and Ahrrenius. The auto-ionization of water. The concept of pH. PH measurement: indicators and meters. PH electrode sensor. The reference electrode. Operation of the combined electrode. Temperature effect on the pH measurement. Calibration of the pH meter.
2 - Organic Chemistry: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Nomenclature of saturated hydrocarbons. Nomenclature of cycloalkanes. Functional groups: Alcohols and ethers; Aldehydes and ketones; Carboxylic acids; Esters; The amines; Amides; polymers
3 - Chemistry of black and white photography: BW film Constitution. photochemical mechanisms of image formation; Formation of the latent image; Variation of the photosensitivity of silver salts with the wavelength of the radiation; Mechanism of spectral sensitization; Orthocromia, pancromia and infrared sensitization ; most common sensitizers. Revelation; Chemical agents of revelation (reducers); Acid-base balance of Hydroquinone; redox balance of hydroquinone; metol; the development mechanism; The shape of the grain metallic silver after development; physical development and chemical development; The superaditivity; alkali agents; antioxidants; Restrainers; Other agents; The particular case of sodium sulfite; Examples of the developing solutions. Stop bath. Fixation; Fixation mechanism; Composition of the fixing bath. Turning. Washing.
Practical work of production and optimization of the operating conditions of a solution of developing agent. The optimization is performed by studying the following process variables on the development of a paper positive: Superaditivity, pH, temperature, development time and concentration of the developing solution.
- Stroebel, L. e Compton, J. e Current, I. e Zakia, R. (2000). Basic Photographic Materials and Processes. Boston: Focal Press
- Atkins, P. (1989). General Chemistry. Nova Iorque: Scientific American
- Hirsch, R. (1991). Photographic Possibilities ? The expressive use of ideas, materials and processes. Boston: Focal Press
- Chang, R. e Goldsby, K. (2013). Química. New York: McGraw Hill
Method of interaction
Lectures and laboratory classes in which the students will learn how to manage the chemical processes variables.
Software used in class