Fluid Mechanics

 

Mechanical Engineering, Publication in the Diário da República - Despacho nº 14312/2015 - 02/12/2015

5 ECTS; 2º Ano, 2º Semestre, 15,0 T + 15,0 PL + 30,0 TP + 3,50 OT

Lecturer
- Flávio Rodrigues Fernandes Chaves

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
An initial approach to Fluid Mechanics is presented from the point of view of a Mechanical Engineer. The examples of application that are presented illustrate problems that are encountered by Mechanical Engineers in their daily work. The structure of the course is also tailored to review previous concepts and provide solid foundation for subsequent courses.

Program
1. Physical properties of fluids
1.1 Notion of fluid
1.2 Unit systems
1.3 Density
1.4 External forces. Isotropy
1.5 Compressibility
1.6 Viscosity
1.7 Surface tension and capillarity
1.8 Saturation pressure of vapor
1.9 Solubility of gases in liquids
1.10 Pressure. Absolute and relative pressures
2. Dimensional analysis
2.1 Dimensions
2.2 Dimensional homogeneity
3. Hydrostatic
3.1 Hydrostatic pressure law
3.2 Equilibrium of a liquid mass
3.3 Manometers
3.4 Hydrostatic impulse
3.5 Hydrostatic impulse on flat surfaces
3.6 Impulse on curved surfaces
3.7 Impulse on the base and the totality of containers
3.8 Hydrostatic impulse on immersed and floating bodies.
3.9 Pascal's Principle
4. Hydrokinetics
4.1 Trajectories and current lines
4.2 Permanent flow and variable flow
4.3 Flow in a tube
4.4 Flow and average speed
4.5 Equation of continuity
4.6 Laminar and turbulent flows
5. Hydrodynamics
5.1 Bernoulli's theorem. Perfect liquids
5.2 Piezometric line and power line
5.3 Piezometer and Pitot tube
5.4 Torricelli Formula
5.5 Bernoulli's theorem. Real liquids
5.6 Load losses in uniform regime
5.7 Vortexes
5.8 Flat flows
5.9 Flat irrotational movements
5.10 Boundary layer. Separation
6. Global study of liquid flows
6.1 Generalized Bernoulli theorem for flow tubes
6.2 Pumps and turbines. Hydraulic power
6.3 Tracing of the power line and the piezometric line
6.4 Euler's theorem
7. Uniform flow resistance laws
7.1 Power line and piezometric line in uniform regime
7.2 Tangential stress at the solid boundary
7.3 Uniform laminar flows. Hagen Poiseuille formula.
7.4 Roughness of the pipe walls
7.5 Nikuradse experience. Karman Prandtl formulas
7.6 Load losses in commercial pipes. Equivalent roughness
7.7 Colebrook White Formula
7.8 Moody's Abacus
7.9 Empirical laws for the turbulent regime
7.10 Validity of resistance laws

Evaluation Methodology
Written test and laboratorial practice

Bibliography
- Munson, B. e Okiishi, T. e Huebsch, W. e Rothmayer, A. (2013). Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. EUA: Wiley
- Lopes, A. e Oliveira, L. (2020). Mecânica dos Fluidos. (Vol. 6). -: Lidel
- White, F. (2002). Mecânica dos Fluidos. (Vol. 4). -: McGraw-Hill

Method of interaction
Slideshows. Examples of application exercises will be solved and, whenever necessary, laboratory experiments demonstrating the concepts learned will be carried out.

Software used in class
Not applicable.