﻿ Digital Systems - Engenharia InformáticaInstituto Politécnico de Tomar

# Engenharia Informática

## Digital Systems

Publication in the Diário da República: Despacho n.º 8644/2020 - 08/09/2020

6 ECTS; 1º Ano, 1º Semestre, 42,0 PL + 28,0 TP , Cód. 91194.

(1) Docente Responsável
(2) Docente que lecciona

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
After approval of the curricular unit, the student should be able to:
- convert between decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems
- calculate addition, subtraction, multiplication and division in some numerical systems
- use Boolean algebra to describe and optimize logic functions
- draw and interpret logic diagrams with the corresponding logic gate symbols and digital standard components
- know the manufacturing technologies and limitations of digital logic families
- analyze combinatorial and sequential logic circuits LSI, MSI and LSI
- design simple combinatorial and sequential logic circuits that implement a given function
- implement and troubleshoot combinatorial and sequential logic circuits with standard circuits
- Know and design Finite State Machines
- Use simulation tools to simulate combinatorial and sequential logic circuits
- Know and explore design techniques based on the latest CAD tools and VHDL hardware description languages.

Program
1. Introduction.
- Organization of the discipline;
- introductory concepts;
- Digital and analog quantities: bits, logic levels and digital signals;
- Operations and basic logic functions;
- Integrated digital circuits.

2) Logic Functions
- Boolean algebraic functions and expressions;
- Laws, theorems and postulates of Boolean Algebra;
- Normalized forms of boolean expressions and truth tables;
- Representation and minimization of boolean functions;
- Karnaugh maps, logical adjacency and groupings.

3) Simplifications of logical expressions
- Simplification of logical expressions using the Boolean Algebra Postulates;
- Simplification of logical expressions using Karnaugh Maps.

4) Digital representation of information
- Numbering bases and conversion between bases;
- Numbering systems;
- Arithmetic operations in the different bases;
- Codes for the representation of signed numbers (complement to 1 and 2);
- Binary codes to represent decimal numbers;
- BCD, Excess-3, Gray Code and ASCII Code.

5) Digital circuits and logic families
- TTL logical families; CMOS Family;
- Delay of propagation of logic gates and merit factor;
- Fault detection in digital circuit making
- Totem-Pole outputs and three states outputs.

6) Combinatorial circuits of medium Complexity
- Realization of combinatorial logic with logic circuits;
- Multiplexers and demultiplexers;
- logical comparators;
- Arithmetic circuits (adders, subtractors and multipliers);
- Encoders and decoders;

7) Basic sequential circuits
- Sequential behavior of circuits;
- Synchronous and Asynchronous Sequential Circuits;
- Basic elements: Latch NOR, NAND and D;
- Flip-flops: JK, D and T;
- Moore and Mealey State machines;

8) Analysis and design of sequential circuits and Finite State Machines
- Analysis and synthesis of sequential circuits;
- Self-correcting circuits;
- Design of low-complexity sequential circuits;
- Introduction to Finite State Machines;
- VHDL programming of sequential circuits and Finite State Machines

9) Counters, Registers and Memories
- Use of shift records;
- Synchronous / asynchronous counters Increment and Decrement;
- Ripple Counters;
- Counters ICs;
- Structure of semiconductor memories;
- Read only memories, ROMs; Random Access Memories RAMs;
- Implementation with ROMs.

10) Programmable Logic Devices
- Introduction to the study of programmable logic;
- EPROM programmable devices, FPLAs, PLAs, PALs;
- Implementation of programmable combinatorial / sequential circuits;
- PAL Programming. Application examples;
- Introdução às CPLDs e FPGAs

Evaluation Methodology
Assessment items.
The final grade is the average of the following components:
a) Written exam (60%)
b) Homeworks and Labs (40%)

Minimum requirements:
Minimum of 8,5 out 20 for part a)
Minimum of 10 out of 20 for part b)

Bibliography
- Arroz, G. e Monteiro, J. e Oliveira, A. (2009). Arquitectura de Computadores: dos Sistemas Digitais aos Microprocessadores. (Vol. 1). http://www.wook.pt/ficha/arquitectura-de-computadores/a/id/190902: IST - Instituto Superior Técnico
- Barros, M. (0). Sebenta e Slides de Sistemas Digitais (PT). Acedido em 24 de setembro de 2021 em http://www.e-learning.ipt.pt/course/view.php?id=310
- Dias, M. (2013). Sistemas Digitais - Princípio e prática. (Vol. 1). https://www.fca.pt/cgi-bin/fca_main.cgi/?op=2&isbn=978-972-722-700-6: FCA
- Harris, D. e Harris, S. e , . (2013). Digital Design and Computer Architecture, 2nd Edition. https://www.elsevier.com/books/digital-design-and-computer-architecture/harris/978-0-12-394424-5: Elsevier
- Tocci, R. e Moss, G. (2009). Digital Systems - Priciples and Applications. (Vol. 1). (pp. 992). http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/product/Digital-Systems-Principles-and-Applications-11E/9780135103821.page: Perason - Prentice Hall

Teaching Method
Lectures, Problem solving classes and Laboratory classes;

Software used in class
Free Tools:
Logisim (http://www.cburch.com/logisim)