Raw Materials (Option)

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
5.5 ECTS; 3º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 P

Lecturer

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
Be able to characterise fibrous and non-fibrous materials and to become
familiar with refining equipment. Be aware of the influence of refining
and their operational conditions in the final characteristics of paper.

Program
I. Sustainable development. Biodiversity.
I1. Portuguese forest.
I2. Forest products.
II. Forest products with applications in the paper industry.
III. Physical and mechanical properties of fibrous materials.
III. 1. Water-fibre connections.
III. 2. Effects of refining process no fibres.
IV. Beating
IV. 1. Influencing factors. Effects of beating operation on fibres.
IV. 2. Influence of beating process on physical paper properties.
IV. 3. Influence of beating process on fibres classification.
IV. 4. Influencie of the consistency and the temperature in the refining process.
V. Physical and mechanical properties of nonfibrous materials.
V.1. Bending agents
V.2. Fillers
V.3. Retention agentes
V.4. Optical brightners

Evaluation Methodology
I. Literature review report.
II. Laboratory coursework and reports.
Final mark is the average of the two components.
Minimum passing mark: 10/20 in both assessment components.

Bibliography
- Velho, J. (2003). Mineral Fillers for Paper: Why, What, How. Tomar - Portugal: Tecnicelpa
- Levlin, J. e Soderbjelm, L. (1999). Pulp and Paper Testing. Helsinquia: Fapet Oy
- Paulapuro, H. (2000). Papermaking Part1, Stock Preparation and Wet End. Helsinquia: Fapet Oy
- Biermann, C. (1996). Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking. S. Diego: Academic Press

Method of interaction
Explanatory lectures and laboratory classes.

Software used in class
Not applicable.