Introduction to materials

TeSP - Produção Artística para a Conservação e Restauro, Publication in the Diário da República - Aviso nº 3921/2015 - 14/04/2015

3 ECTS; 2º Ano, 1º Semestre, 15,0 PL + 30,0 TP


Not applicable.

1. Know the rocks, sediments and clays used in stone earth construction
2. Know the production of ceramics and glazes
3. Know the production of binders and mortars

1. Materials and matter
1.1. Material groups: natural and artificial, organic and inorganic, non-metallic, metallic and energetic, and composites
1.2. Process, input and output
1.3. Natural resource. Raw material.
1.4. States of matter
1.4.1. State changes: temperature and pressure
1.4.2. Physical and chemical structure of the states of matter
1.5. Energy of the states and principle of minimum energy

2. Stone materials, sediments and minerals
2.1. Igneous rocks: granite and basalt
2.2. Sedimentary rocks: limestone and gypsum
2.3 Metamorphic rocks: shale
2.4. Sediments: sand, silt and clay
2.5. Minerals: silica, feldspar, calcite, gypsum and clay minerals
2.5.1. Types: oxides, hydroxides, silicates, aluminosilicates, sulphates and carbonates

3. Sediments and clays used in ceramics and glazes
3.1. Types of ceramics and glazes
3.2. Structure and general properties of the sediments and clays
3.2.1. Particle size and distribution of grain/particle
3.2.2. Incoherency and cohesion
3.3. Functions and applications
3.4. Production of ceramics and glazes
3.5. Structure and main properties of ceramics and glazes
3.5.1. Shrinkage and dilatation
3.5.2. Permeability and porosity versus impermeability
3.5.3. Mechanical and chemical strength

4. Rocks and sediments used in binder materials and mortars
4.1 Classic binders: gypsum, lime and hydraulic lime
4.1.1. Types: air and hydraulic
4.2. Classic mortars: simple and bastard
4.2.1. Main function and application
4.3. Traditional production of binders
4.4. Traditional production of mortars
4.5. Structure and general properties of the mortars
4.5.1. Fresh and hardened state
4.5.2. Setting time
4.5.3. Shrinkage and cracking
4.5.4. Porosity
4.5.5. Water, mechanical and chemical strength

Evaluation Methodology
Closed book exam.


Method of interaction
1. Theoretical practices focused on the exploration of basic concepts and elementary principles.
2. Laboratory classes which applying of technical concepts, including experimentation and observation.

Software used in class