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Conservação e Restauro

Materials 1

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Publication in the Diário da República: Despacho n.º 10852/2016 - 05/09/2016

4.5 ECTS; 1º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 TP + 2,0 OT , Cód. 93807.


(1) Docente Responsável
(2) Docente que lecciona

Not applicable.

1. Identify commonly occurring rocks and minerals.
2. Understand the degradation relationship between mineral, rock, sediment and clay.
3. Know the production of binders (gypsum and lime), as well as the general properties and behavior of plaster and lime mortars.

1. Materials and matter
1.1. Material groups: natural and artificial, organic and inorganic, non-metallic, metallic and energetic, and composites
1.2. Process, input and output
1.3. Natural resource. Raw material.
1.4. States of matter
1.4.1. State changes: temperature and pressure
1.4.2. Physical and chemical structure of the states of matter
1.5. Energy of the states and principle of minimum energy

2. Stone materials, sediments and minerals
2.1. Igneous rocks: granite and basalt
2.1.1. Magmatism and volcanism
2.2. Sedimentary rocks: limestone and gypsum
2.2.1. Weathering, erosion, transport, deposition and diagenesis
2.3 Metamorphic rocks: shale and marble
2.3.1. Metamorphism
2.4. Sediments: sand, silt and clay
2.5. Minerals: silica, feldspar, calcite, gypsite and clay minerals
2.5.1. Types: oxides, hydroxides, sulphates and carbonates. Silicates and aluminosilicates
2.6. Alteration and alterability
2.6.1. The lithosphere interaction with atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere
2.6.2. Relationship between rock, mineral, sediment and clay

3. Binder materials and mortars
3.1 Classic binders: gypsum, lime, lime with hydraulic properties and cement
3.1.1. Types: air and hydraulic
3.2. Classic mortars: simple and bastard
3.2.1. Main function and application
3.3. Traditional production of binders
3.3.1. Raw materials
3.3.2. Calcination
3.3.3. Grinding
3.4. Traditional production of mortars
3.4.1. Composition and formulation
3.4.2. Components
3.4.3. Mixture
3.4.4. Curing and ageing
3.5. Pozzolans and pozzolanic materials
3.5.1. Types: natural and syntectic
3.6. Modern binders and mortars
3.6.1. Geopolymers based on calcined kaolin
3.7. Structure and general properties of the mortars
3.7.1. Solid and liquid state
3.7.2. Fresh and hardened state
3.7.3. Setting time
3.7.4. Shrinkage and cracking
3.7.5. Porosity
3.7.6. Water, mechanical and chemical strength
3.8. Deterioration of mortars
3.8.1. Main factors and mechanisms
3.8.2. Defects of formulation, mixture, application and hardening
3.8.3. Common pathologies: effloresces and ceramic-mortar interaction

Evaluation Methodology
In the periods of frequency and exams, the evaluation will be carried out using written tests without consultation. The tests are composed of two independent parts: theoretical component and theoretical-practical component.
The final classification in each assessment period is obtained by the formula: Final classification = CT x 0.5 + CTP x 0.5, where: CT - classification of the theoretical component obtained in the frequency period by the arithmetic mean of the theoretical tests and in periods examination by theoretical test; CTP - classification of the theoretical-practical component obtained in the frequency period by the arithmetic mean of the theoretical-practical tests and in exam periods by the theoretical-practical tests.
At any time of evaluation, the theoretical and theoretical-practical components have a minimum score of 7.5 values for approval of the curricular unit, and are exempt from examination with a score equal to or greater than 10 values.
At any time of evaluation, the student can choose to carry out only the theoretical or theoretical-practical component and the best classification obtained in both components will always be considered.
At any time of assessment, repeating students have the option of carrying out the theoretical-practical component through written work.

- Borrelli, E. e Urland, A. (1999). ARC Laboratory Handbook. Rome: ICCROM
- Garate Rojas, I. (1998). Artes de los yesos. Madrid: Munillaleria
- Garate Rojas, I. (2002). Artes de la cal. Madrid: Munillaleria
- Henry, A. (2012). Practical Building Conservation: Mortars, Renders & Plasters. Farnham: Ashgate

Teaching Method
1. Lectures focused on the exploration of basic concepts and elementary principles
2. Laboratory classes which applying of technical concepts, including observation, calculus and testing

Software used in class
Theoretical: not applicable
Theoretical-practical: spreadsheet




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