6 ECTS; 1º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 PL
- Marco António Mourão Cartaxo
Understand the concepts underlying structure and binding in organic molecules. Learn the main reaction mechanisms and understand their representation, taking into account the formed intermediates and their stabilities. Know the different families of monofunctional organic compounds with regard to physical properties, intermolecular bonds and specific chemical reactions. Get knowledge about techniques of structural analysis used to identify the organic compounds.
1. Structure and binding in organic molecules
1.1 Characteristics of the carbon atom. 1.2 Molecular Structure. 1.3 Isomerism. 1.4 The bond in organic chemistry. 1.5 Inductive effect. 1.6 Resonance.
2. Reagents and reactions in organic chemistry
2.1 Representation of the reaction mechanism. 2.2 Electronic aspect of reactions and intermediates. 2.3 Homolytic reactions. Free radicals. 2.4 Heterolytic reactions. Carbocations and carbanions.
3. Hydrocarbons: structure, physical properties, nomenclature, reactivity and typical spectra.
3.1 Alkanes. Homolytic substitution. 3.2 Cycloalkanes. 3.3 Alkenes and alkynes. Electrophilic addition. 3.4 Aromatic hydrocarbons. Electrophilic substitution.
4. Structure, nomenclature, properties, reactivity and typical spectra of the main groups of organic compounds.
4.1 Alcohols, phenols and ethers. Substitution and eliminatio nreactions. 4.2 Amines. Hoffmann elimination. 4.3 Aldehydes and ketones. Addition and substitution reactions. Keto-enolic tautomerism. 4.4 Carboxylic acids and derived functions. Nucleophilic substitution by addition-elimination.
5. Basic principles of organic compounds structural analysis - FTIR, MS and NMR.
TP1. Separation of vegetable pigments by chromatography.
TP2. Study of the main functional groups reactions.
TP3. Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid.
TP4. Synthesis of tribromophenol.
TP5. Purification techniques: recrystallization of acetylsalicylic acid and tribromophenol.
A - two partial theoretical tests, A1 and A2, A = 0,5*A1 + 0,5*A2; (A1+A2=20 val.)
B - completion of all laboratory work and delivery of the laboratory notebook (CL) and a written practical test (PL); B = 0,5*CL + 0,5*TP;
C - final theoretical exam.
Final continuous evaluation - 0.6*A + 0.4*B
Final exam evaluation -
0.6*C + 0.4*B
The practical evaluation (B) is valid for 3 consecutive years.
The students are approved with a final classification equal to or greater than 10 marks.
- Vollhardt, P. e Schore, N. (2018). Organic Chemistry: Structure and Function, 8th ed.. New York: W. H. Freeman
- Tomé, A. (2010). Introdução à nomenclatura dos compostos orgânicos, 1ª ed.. Lisboa: Escolar Editora
- Smith, J. (2019). Organic Chemistry, 6th ed.. New York: McGraw-Hill Education
Theoretical-practical classes of exercise resolution.
Laboratory classes for synthesis, purification and analysis of organic compounds.
Software used in class