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Bachelor's Degree in Fotografia

Historical and Experimental Processes in Photography 2

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Publication in the Diário da República: Despacho n.º 8645/2020 - 08/09/2020

6 ECTS; 2º Ano, 2º Semestre, 30,0 PL + 30,0 TP + 5,0 OT

- Alexandre José de Magalhães Figueiredo


At the end of the semester, the student should be able to autonomously understand and execute the photographic printing processes addressed; Knowing how to distinguish characteristics and potentialities of the execution of the different printing processes; Knowing how to analyze the constituents of supports and reagents of photosensitive solutions; Understand and interpret variables adjacent to processes such as: contrast, density, veil, reproduction of detail; Raise awareness for the sustainable use of printing techniques, minimizing the environmental impact.

Part 1 - Careful production of large format matrices digitally and manipulation in editing software.

Part 2 - Kallitype printing. Skills to be acquired: the student will produce a digital large format matrix and measure the contrast to get the best out of the tonal reproduction of the image. You will experiment with printing on different papers, evaluating the differences and potentialities.

Part 3 – Cyanotype printing. Skills to be acquired: the student will adapt the contrast of the negative to the native contrast of the photographic solution. He will manipulate the chemistry of the process in order to obtain alternative color variations to Prussian blue. You will experiment with cyanotype on different supports, experimenting with its potential.

Part 4 – Carbon printing. Skills to acquire: production of photographic emulsion based on colloid and pigment. Production of multiple proofs from the same matrix. Control the viscosity by manipulating restricting agents according to the desired contrast. Domain of the image transfer technique from the temporary support to the definitive support.

Part 5 - Collotype Printing . Skills to acquire: production of matrix solution of gelatin and dichromate based on colloid and lithographic ink. Production of multiple proofs from the same matrix. Control the viscosity by manipulating restricting agents according to the desired contrast. Mastering the technique of transferring the image to the final support on paper.

Part 6 – Anthotype printing. Skills to acquire: understand the potential use of plants, spices and fruits for the production of photographic images, in a logic of environmental sustainability. Understand the influence of pH variation of solutions in obtaining different colors from the same organic matter.

Part 7 - Produce and present theoretical research work (from a list of topics provided by the teacher) before the class in the last contact class.

Evaluation Methodology
The assessment is continuous and consists of:

Attendance, Participation, Attendance-10%
5 practical exercises-65%
1 research work-25%

To pass in Normal Season, the student must obtain a classification of 9.5/20 values, based on the weighted arithmetic average of the evaluation elements described above. To be eligible for evaluation, the student must have delivered all practical exercises with a minimum grade of 8/20; having carried out and presented the research work with a minimum grade of 8/20.
Students with a final UC grade of less than 8/20 are excluded from subsequent assessment periods. Students with a final UC grade greater than 8/20 will be able to take advantage of subsequent evaluation periods for approval or improvement. Approval or improvement focus only on the theoretical assessment element - research work written and presented orally.

The same methodology is applied to subsequent Valuation Seasons.

- Nadeau, L. (1986). Modern Carbon Printing. London: LNR
- Anderson, C. (2019). Cyanotype: The Blueprint in Contemporary Practice (Contemporary Practices in Alternative Process Photography). London: Focal Press
- Stulik, D. e Kaplan, A. (2013). The Atlas of Analytical Signatures of Photographic Processes - Collotype. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute
- Fabbri, M. (2011). Anthotypes: Explore the darkroom in your garden and make photographs using plants. Stockholm: Malin Fabbri

Teaching Method
Lecture, theoretical-practical and laboratory-practical classes. After a contextualization of the proposed photographic printing processes, a practical experiment will follow.

Software used in class
Adobe Photoshop




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