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Conservação e Restauro

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7 ECTS; 2º Ano, 2º Semestre, 15,0 T + 60,0 PL + 3,0 OT , Cód. 938096.

Lecturer
- Fernando dos Santos Antunes (1)(2)

(1) Docente Responsável
(2) Docente que lecciona

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
1.Identify the materials, techniques and technologies used in the production of furniture;
2. Identify and understand the causes and mechanisms of alteration and deterioration of objects: the processes of alterability – natural aging of materials, and alteration of materials – damages and pathologies;
3.Understand and apply the theory of conservation and restoration in furniture, in the different types of intervention according to the deontological, ethical and technical criteria and aspects to be taken into account in the design and intervention phases;
4.Understand and execute the preparatory phase of the treatments, applying basic rules of organization and operation in the laboratory and shipyard, registering and documenting the object and the intervention process, Identification of the materials and techniques of the object, the preparation of diagnosis and formulation treatment proposal;
5.Understand and execute furniture conservation and restoration treatments, at the level of structures and at the level of surface layers.

Program
THEORETICAL COMPONENT:
A. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS
1. Types of Wood
1.1. Identification and dating processes
2. Resins, Adhesives and Gums
2.1. As collage products
2.2. As finishing/polishing products
3. Production of Furniture
3.1. Accessories applied in production and decoration
3.1.1. Metal fittings and other miscellaneous materials: types and functions
3.2. Object structure
3.2.1. Connections and fittings: types and shapes
3.3. Decoration on furniture
3.3.1. Materials: woods, metals, osteological, malacological, animal skins, resins, adhesives and gums, waxes and oils
3.3.2. Types and techniques of decorative work and coatings
3.3.2.1. Carving, turning, profiles
3.3.2.2. Inlays
3.3.2.3. Plated, veneered, marquetry
3.3.2.4. Gilding and silvering: the leaf | the metallic temper
3.3.2.5. Lacquered and encrusted
3.3.2.6. Synthetic veneers and laminates
3.3.3. Wood Coloring
3.3.3.1. Paints: tempera | oil | encaustic
3.3.3.2. Transparencies: dyes
3.3.3.3. Velaturas: mordants
3.3.4. wood finishes
3.3.4.1. Polishes: oil | the wax | to varnish | mixed
3.3.5. Upholstery for seating furniture, beds and others
3.3.5.1. Sole and engraved leather
3.3.5.2. Woven with vegetable, synthetic and animal fibers
3.3.5.3. Upholstery: Natural and synthetic fabrics | Natural and synthetic skins

B. CAUSES OF CHANGE AND DETERIORATION IN FURNITURE
1. Causes of a physical nature
1.1. Temperature and Relative Humidity
1.2. Mechanical action
2. Causes of a chemical nature
2.1. Liquid and gaseous solid pollutants
2.2. Solid and liquid reagents
3. Causes of a biological nature
3.1. Microorganisms – pests
3.2. Macroorganisms - plagues
3.3. Weedy animals and plants

C. THEORY OF CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION IN FURNITURE
1. Types of intervention - preventive, conservative, restitutive
2. Criteria and deontological, ethical and technical aspects to be taken into account in the design and intervention phases

LABORATORY PRACTICE COMPONENT:
D. PREPARATORY PHASE OF TREATMENTS
1. Basic rules of organization and operation during the intervention
2. Registration and documentation of the work and intervention process
2.1. Execution of photographic records
2.2. Execution of graphic schemes
2.3. Execution of technical drawing and mappings
2.4. Completion of Technical Data Sheet and Work Sheet
3. Identification of object materials and techniques
3.1. Identification on sight
3.2. Macroscopic and microscopic identification
3.3. Identification using exams and analysis
4. Observation and analysis of the state of conservation
4.1. Identification of the environmental conditions of the place of origin of the work
4.2. Identification of previous interventions
4.3. Identification of situations subject to examination and analysis
5. Discussion of results and elaboration of diagnosis
6. Formulation of a treatment proposal

E. CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION TREATMENTS
1. Conservation of the Structure
1.1. Disinfection and disinfestation: products and techniques
1.2. Consolidation: products, materials and techniques
1.3. Fixing surface decorative coatings
1.4. Structure review
1.4.1. Disassembly of elements
1.4.1.1. Removal of connecting metal accessories: nails, screws, hardware
1.4.1.2. Cleaning of dust, dirt and removing glues, adhesives and gums
1.4.1.3. Cleaning of corrosion products from metal accessories
1.4.1.4. Stabilization of metallic accessories: application of a protective layer
1.4.2. Assembly of elements
1.4.2.1. Glues and squeezing of collage: techniques and materials
2. Structure Restoration
2.1. Volumetric reconstitution
2.1.1. Reconstitution of missing elements: structural and decorative
2.1.1.1. Techniques and materials
2.1.2. Filling gaps in structure and decoration
2.1.2.1. Techniques and materials
2.1.3. Leveling and polishing fills
2.2. Design of supporting structures
2.2.1. Techniques and materials
3. Surface Conservation
3.1. Fixation of chromatic and pictorial layers
3.2. Fixing/gluing decorative or cladding elements
3.3. Cleaning
3.3.1. Cleaning systems: physical; chemistry; wet to dry or mechanical
3.3.2. Dirt, chromatic and pictorial strata solubilization tests
3.3.3. Cleaning media: chemical reagents, organic solvents, enzymes, detergents, gels, abrasives
3.3.4. Cleaning levels: extent and precautions
3.3.5. Removal of repaintings and paint layers, and removal of metallic coatings and repolishing: paints, imitation metallic foils, varnishes, waxes and oils
4. Surface Restoration
4.1. Filling in gaps
4.1.1. Materials and techniques
4.1.2. Leveling and polishing fills
4.2. Surface polishing and finishing
4.3. Chromatic and pictorial reintegration
4.4. Application of protective layers

Evaluation Methodology
Integrated Assessment Components and Their Weighting in Continuous and Final Assessment:

Theoretical Component (50%):
1.Written Work (25%)
2. Technical Sheet and Worksheet (25%)

Laboratory Practice Component (50%):
3. Performance (35%)
4. Attendance/participation (15%)

Complementary information:
-The evaluation results from the weighting of the evaluation items, with the student having to obtain at least 10 values for each component to obtain approval;
-Students who have an average equal to or greater than 10 are exempt from the exam;
-Students who obtain at least 10 values in the practical laboratory component (items 3 and 4) will be admitted to the exam;
-Students who do not obtain at least 10 marks in the practical laboratory component (items 3 and 4) will be excluded from the exam;
-Eventual improvements will be made only to the Theoretical Component (items 1 and 2) – keeping in the final weighting the evaluation obtained in the laboratory practical component (items 3 and 4).
-The subject of the written work must be communicated to the professor, through a form made available for this purpose, who will confirm and validate it in advance.

Bibliography
- BROMMELLE, N. e WERNER, A. (1965). Deterioration and Treatment of Wood. Joint Meeting of the ICOM Committee for Scientific Museum Laboratories and the ICOM Sub-Committee for the Care of Paintings. Washington and New York: ICOM
- COLARES, J. Manual do Marceneiro. Biblioteca de Instrução Profissional. Brasil / Lisboa: Livraria Bertrand e Imprensa Portugal
- MCGIFFIN, R. (1983). Furniture Care and Conservation. Nashville, TN: AASLH
- ORDOÑEZ, L. e ORDOÑEZ, C. e ROTAECHE, M. (1996). Il Mobile: Conservazione e Restauro. Fiesole: Nardini Editore
- RIVERS, S. e UMNEY, N. (2012). Conservation of Furniture. Butterworth-Heinemann Series in Conservation and Museology. London: Routledge

Teaching Method
1.Theoretical classes, expository.
2.Laboratory practical classes, practical application sessions where interventions in furniture are developed, with supervision and guidance.
3.Tutorial guidance, pedagogical, technical and scientific support.

Software used in class
Not applicable.

 

 

 


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