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Conservação e Restauro

Materials 3

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Publication in the Diário da República: Despacho n.º 10852/2016 - 05/09/2016

4.5 ECTS; 2º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 TP + 2,0 OT , Cód. 938021.

Lecturer

(1) Docente Responsável
(2) Docente que lecciona

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
1.List the main colouring materials and describe their use and properties
2.List the main organic materials with structural function and describe their use and properties
3.Relate its properties with its production processes
4.Relate the materials with their historical context

Program
1. Historical sources for the knowledge of materials
1.1 The materials in its historical context
1.2 Historical sources from Antiquity
1.3 Historical sources from the Middle Age
1.4. 16th century Historical sources
1.5. Historical sources of the 17th and 18th centuries
1.6. Portuguese editions and translations of the 19th century and 1st half of the 20th century
1.7. Problems of interpretation of ancient documentary sources
2. Pigments with historical interest
2.1 Nomenclature, general characteristics, use and importance of pigments
2.1.1 The different types of designations
2.1.2 Uses of pigments
2.1.3. requirements of pigments
2.1.4. types of pigments from the historical point of view
2.1.5 Processes of production of pigments
2.1.6. The paints and their preparation
2.1.7 Sources of information on the use of pigments
2.2 Main pigments with historical interest
2.2.1 Prehistoric pigments
2.2.2 Pigments of Roman period
2.2.3 Medieval, 16th and 17th century pigments
2.2.4 Modern pigments
2.3 Color and other physical properties
2.3.1 The origin of the colour of pigments
2.3.2 Pigment particle size and shape
2.3.3 Effect of particle size
2.3.4 Refractive index and opacity of paints
2.4 The chemistry of pigments
2.4.1 The stability of pigments
2.4.2 Reaction with other materials making up the works
2.4.3. Reaction with atmospheric pollutants
2.4.4 Reaction with water vapour
2.4.5. Reaction with light
2.4.6. Other processes of alteration
2.4.7. Pigments toxicity
3. Writing, drawing and printing inks and materials
3.1. Writing and drawing inks
3.2 Other drawing materials
3.3. The printing inks
4. Dyes with historical interest
4.1. The origin of the colour of the dyes
4.2. Anthraquinones
4.3. Flavonoids
4.4. Indigoids
4.5. Carotenoids
4.6. Other colorants with historical importance
4.7. Extraction and obtention of natural dyes
4.8. Dyeing of textiles
5. Textile fibres
5.1 Natural fibres
5.1.1 Origin and structure of natural fibres
5.1.2 Chemical composition
5.1.3 Properties of natural fibres
5.2 Synthetic and semi-synthetic fibres
5.2.1 Semi-synthetic fibres
5.2.2 Synthetic fibres
6. Wood
6.1 Structure
6.1.1 Planes and cuts
6.1.2 Macroscopic structure
6.1.3 Microscopic structure (cellular structure)
6.2 Composition and properties
6.2.1 Chemical composition
6.2.2 Physical and mechanical properties
6.2.3 Deterioration of wood
7. Paper
7.1 History
7.1.1 Historic paper
7.1.2. The paper-mills
7.1.3. Raw materials
7.1.4. Production
7.1.5. Treatments
7.2 Industrial production
7.3 Structure and composition
7.4. Alteration
8. Leather and parchment
8.1. Animal skin
8.2 Leather
8.2.1 Uses
8.2.2 Traditional technology
8.2.3. Properties
8.2.4. Alteration
8.3 Parchment
8.3.1 Uses
8.3.2 Traditional technology
8.3.3 Properties
8.3.4. Alteration

Evaluation Methodology
The theoretical-practical classes are mandatory. The evaluation is done through a TP component (reports of the work done in TP classes) (40%) and a theoretical component (final exam) (60%). The exam is either exempted or approved when both components have a classification equal or superior to 10 out of 20. Those who do not score at least 10 out of 20 in the TP component, will be excluded from the final exam.

Bibliography
- AAVV, A. (2007). Artists' Pigments. A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics. (Vol. 1-4). Washington - London: National Gallery of Art - Archetype Publications
- Brill, T. (1980). Light. Its Interaction with Art and Antiquities. New York: Plenum Press
- Cruz, A. (2004). As Cores dos Artistas - História e ciência dos pigmentos utilizados em pintura. Lisboa: Apenas Livros
- Hoadley, R. (2000). Understanding Wood. A Craftsman's Guide to Wood Technology. Newton: Tauton Press
- Hunter, D. (1978). Papermaking. The history and technique of an ancient craft. New York: Dover
- Kühn, H. (1986). Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art and Antiquities. Volume 1. London: Butterworths
- Nicolaus, K. (1999). Manual de Restauración de Cuadros. Köln: Könemann
- Orna, M. (2022). March of the Pigments: Color History, Science and Impact. London: Royal Society of Chemistry
- Tímár-Balázsy, A. (2002). Chemical Principles of Textile Conservation. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann

Teaching Method
1. Theoretical classes of expositive nature
2. Theoretical-practical classes in which are prepared, characterized or identified some materials

Software used in class
Not applicable.

 

 

 


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