Photographic Documentation Methods

Conservation and Restoration

4.5 ECTS; 1º Ano, 1º Semestre, 30,0 T + 30,0 TP + 2,0 OT

Lecturer
- António Martiniano Ventura

Prerequisites
Not applicable.

Objectives
Students will be provided with technical and scientific resources that will enable them to learn photographic techniques as a tool for applied work, particularly in the area of conservation/restoration.

Program
What is photography and what it is for.

The photographic process and its areas of interest:
- The light, the object, the photographic camera, the photographic image;
Reality and photographic representation:
- The subject and its transformation into an image: a new object with its own characteristics;
Photography as a document: characteristics and functions;
Photography as a technique for examining surfaces: methods and technologies.
What photographic records to make? Some criteria.
Available techniques: Photography with diffused light; Shallow light photography; Close photograph; Translumination photography; Photography with polarized light; Photography with monochromatic light; Infrared photography; Ultra violet photography; Ultraviolet fluorescence photography; Reflectography; Digital montage of reflectograms; Digital image acquisition and processing;
Equipment and materials: Small, medium and large format cameras and their accessories; Equipment for close-up photography, macro or micro - photography; Filters and their proper use; Light sources and related equipment; reflectography equipment;
Light and interaction with matter:
Electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength, visible radiation, invisible radiation; diffuse reflection, specular reflection, selective reflection; Crossing, diffuse, direct and selective;
Image formation:
The photographic lens. Fixed focal length, nominal focal length. Lens curvature and aperture angle. Notion of normal, wide-angle and telephoto lens; close-up photography, focus and sharpness control;
The camera and its mechanisms:
- Diaphragm, sharpness control and depth of field;
- Shutter and exposure time: image freeze;
- Photometer and exposure measurement; exposure value;
The photographic emulsion:
- Notion of sensitivity, ASA and DIN standards;
- Compared characteristics of low, medium and high sensitivity photographic emulsions;
Close photography, micro or macro photography;
Photography of objects: three-dimensional and two-dimensional:
Lighting techniques;
Control of subject contrasts;
Type of funds;
Choice of point of view and framing;
Choice of proper focal length;
Point of view, focal length, plane compression and distortion
Depth of field control;
Control of subject contrasts;
Exposure measurement;
Light sources (natural and artificial) in photography:
- Diffused light;
- Direct light;
The surface examination method:
- What role for photography?
- Documentary photography or analysis photography?
- Some concepts and methodological criteria in the context of methods of examination by photographic processes;
Invisible radiation and the photographic record:
Infrared, ultraviolet and Rx. Different types of application of these radiations in the examination of the surface of works of art. Ultraviolet fluorescence photography; Reflectography;
Sensitive materials;
Equipment and accessories; Methods and techniques;

Evaluation Methodology
As the characteristics of this course requires the active participation of the student, it is appropriate that the assessment of learning is carried out on a continuous basis. Thus, for each of the Experimental Projects proposed, and developed throughout the class, an individual technical report will be requested. The final grade will result from the arithmetic average obtained in the set of reports. Examination tests must include a written test, but also require the presentation of individual reports, relating to the monitoring of Experimental Projects developed in practical class. The Exam grade must result from the weighted average obtained between the written test, with a relative weight of 40 points out of 100, and the set of reports presented and developed in practical class, with a relative weight of 60 points out of 100.

Bibliography
- AAVV, A. (1992). Problemi di Restauro, Riflessioni e Richerche. (Vol. 1). (pp. 1-150). Florença: Edifir
- Thomas, B. (1980). Light - Its Interation with Art and Antiquities. New York: Plenum Press
- Blaker, A. (1989). Handbook for Scientific Photography. London: Focal Press
- AA. VV., .. (1992). Problemi di Restauro, Riflessioni e Richerche. .: Edizioni Firenzi
- Ventura, A. (0). Fotografia Aplicada - algumas considerações gerais. Acedido em 10 de novembro de 2014 em https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/6359651/foto%20aplicada/foto_aplicada%202.pdf
- Silveira Ramos, M. e Soudo, J. (0). Manual de Técnicas Fotográficas. Acedido em 9 de novembro de 2014 em https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/6359651/manuais%20de%20fotografia/1_Manual_Tec_Foto.pdf
- Silveira Ramos, M. e Soudo, J. (0). Manual de Técnicas de Iluminação em Fotografia. Acedido em 9 de novembro de 2014 em https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/6359651/manuais%20de%20fotografia/3_Manual_Ilum_Foto.pdf

Method of interaction
A number of structured exercises are proposed that help students understand and master the photographic processes.

Software used in class
Not applicable.