Change and Changeability

Mestrado em Conservação e Restauro, Publication in the Diário da República - Despacho nº 9982/2016 - 05/08/2016

ECTS; º Ano, , 0,0 T + 0,0 PL + 0,0 TP + 0,0 P + 0,0 TC + 0,0 S + 0,0 E + 0,0 OT + 0,0 O


Knowledge of chemistry, materials, microbiology and biochemistry.

This course aims to sensitise students to the intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with change and changeability of the major materials used as a support to movable and built heritage. Contribute to the development of strategies to prevent material deterioration.

This course aims to develop competencies on the intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with alteration and alterability of the main materials on which movable and edified heritage is based.
Upon successful conclusion of the course the students should be able to:
a) Identify the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms of decay of the materials;
b) Recognize the influence of the environmental and anthropogenic conditions on the kinetics of the alteration processes; recommend preventive measures;
c) Make a correct diagnosis of the pathologies that affect the various materials;
d) Contribute to a more adequate and supported intervention, as well as to the development of strategies to prevent deterioration of the materials.

1. Concept of alteration and alterability. Physicochemical and biological actions.
2. Microbial growth. Control of microbial growth. Methods for the identification of biological agents, classical and molecular biology techniques.
3. Influence of the environmental and anthropogenic factors on the kinetics of the alteration processes.
4. Properties and mechanisms of alteration of the main materials on which movable and edified heritage is based: Wooden objects; Writing materials; Alteration of textile materials, thermic degradation, photochemical degradation and biodeterioration; Alteration of metallic materials, fatigue and corrosion; Alteration of ceramic and vitreous materials, degradation of the vitreous phase; Alteration of binding and cementitious materials, alkali reactions of the aggregates; Alteration of petrous materials, physicochemical, biogeochemical and biogeophysic actions.
5. Prevention and control of the processes of alteration of the materials.

Evaluation Methodology
Grading of the students is based on a final test (20%), the report of the research project (60%), the presentation and discussion of a scientific article from the literature (20%).

- Aires-Barros, L. (2001). As rochas dos monumentos portugueses. Tipologias e patologias. (Vol. No.3). Lisboa: Cadernos IPPAR
- Gaylarde, C. e Seal, . e Allsopp, D. (2003). Introduction to Biodeterioration. London: Cambridge University Press
- Smith, W. F., C. (1988). Princípios de Ciência e Engenharia dos Materiais. Portugal: Mc-Graw-Hill de Portugal.
- Mateus, D. (0). Sebentas de Alteração e Alterabilidade. Acedido em 1 de novembro de 2014 em

Method of interaction
The lectures provide the main theoretical concepts. he laboratory classes complement the lectures and consist in conducting a field research project. Students also complete a bibliographic research assignment

Software used in class